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Summary - Neuroscience.
1.2 Genetics, Genomics, and the Brain
Mutated genes can express in brain pathologies
1.3 "Model" Organisms in Neuroscience
Why do we use different animals for studying the nervous system? Which animals do we examine?All used animals have their own benefits and asssumptions.- Worm- Fruitfly- Zebra fish- Mice
1.4 The Cellular Components of the Nervous System
What is the 'neuron doctrine'? (Sherrington, Golgi, Cajal)Neurons form a continuous nerve cell network
Name some methods that were used to study the nervous system.First they used the light microscope and stained neurons with silver salt to study the nervous system. Later in the 1950's when the electric microscope appeared the research became clearer
There are similarities between cells and neurons. Organells are also present in the neurons, but have a different location. Mitochondria for example are concentrated near the synapses.
What are dendrites?Targets for synaptic input from other neurons.
The number of synaptic contacts from other neurons is an important determinant of neuronal function
What is an axon?They convey output information from one to another neuron
1.6 Neuroglial Cells
Name the function of glial cells.- Recovery and development of neuronal networks- Maintaining the ionic milieu of neurons
What is the function of microglia?To scavenge for 'debris' and are acitve if there is an inflammation (macrophages of the brain)
What are astrocytes?Stem cells of neurons
Where are Schwann cell located? In the periphery of CNS?Schwann cells are nerve cells which are myelinated (enveloped by glia cell) and are located in the periphery
What can be concluded out of the fact that the axons of interneurons are short?Interneurons only participate in the local aspects of the circuit
1.7 Cellular Diversity in the Nervous System
What is the Nissl method?A method of staining the nervous system (blue) such stains demonstrate that the size, density and distriution of the total population of nerve cells is not uniform from region to region.
What can be observed with antibody stains?Antibody stains used on tissue can recognize specific proteins such as synapses and dendrites
1.8 Neural Circuits
What is neuropil?A synaptic dense area with relatively a low number of cell bodies
What is the receptive field?A region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron. If the receptive field is small, easy discrimination is possible. If a neuron has a large receptive field, the neuron can not discriminate 2 different stimuli in that receptive field
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Study brain regions
From what layer does the neural tube arise?
During neurulation ectoderm cells lying around the midline thicken and form a neural plate. The neural plate folds inward and the neural tube arises.
Which structure acts as the midline of the body during gastrulation?
What are the 3 primitive layers of the embryo called?
Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm
How can the electrochemical equilibrium be predicted?
By the Nerst equation
Give the sequence of events involved in transmission at a chemical synapse.
1. Action Potential invades presynaptic terminal
2. Depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open.
3. Rapid influx of Ca2+ into the cell
4. Ca2+ causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane
5. Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft via exocytosis.
6. Neurotransmitter binds to specific receptors in postsynaptic membrane.
7. Opening (or closing) of ion channels. So ions can diffuse
Tell something about the arrangement of body parts representation from medial to lateral.
See figure: foot, leg, trunk, forelimbs, face
What is stereognosis?
Just by manipulating an object with ours hands, we are able to identify this object.
What is a dermatome?
The territory innervated by each spinal nerve with respect to cutaneus sensation.