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Summary - Occupational Health Psychology
1 An Introduction to Occupational Health Psychology
Wat zijn de kernwoorden van Hoofdstuk 1?Definition. Emergence. Pioneers. Difference culture.
Wat is het hoofddoel van Hoofdstuk 1?Een introductie geven van OHP.
Where did the term 'occupational health psychology' originate?It was coined in 1990 at the Univeristy of Hawaii by a team of academics who observed unfulfilles potential for psychologist to support the development of healthy work environments.
What is the vision of occupational psychology?To create healthy workplaces in which people may produce, serve, grow and be valued.
Why is occupational health psychology important?Prevention of occupational illness and injury, and promotion of occupational health and well-beging.
What is the European definition?The contribution of applied psychology to occupational health.
European Occupational Health Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Work & Organizational Psychology
- Social and Environmental Psychology
American Occupational Health Psychology
- Public Health
- Occupational Health & Safety
SOURCE = design, management and organization of work
RESPONSES coping resources
EFFECTS/OUTCOMES provision of remedial support
Op welke drie wijzen hebben ze de topic area's onderzocht van OHP?1. nauwkeurig onderzoek educational currucila. 2. Analyses themes academid journals. 3. Expert surveys.
Scrutiny of existing curricula
a) Survey of occupational safety and health
b) job stress theory
c) organizational risk factors for occupational tsress, injury and illnes
d) physical and psychological health implications of stressful work
e) organizational interventions reduction work-related stress
f) research methods
- First World War = to consider and advise on questions of industrial fatigue, hours of labour and other matters affecting the personal health and psysical efficiency of workers in munitions factories.
- Dining rooms separated from factory floor, well lighted and ventilated and properly wwarmed
- Woman & Younger workers , the enhacement of productivity.
- Flexible working hours & workplce childcare facilities
- Trade unions - Health & satefy at WOrk act 1974. Reducing prevalence of industrial diseases and injuries. > new wave of risks to workers health, psychosocial risks. Stress e.d.
- Employee participation & Worker aliention.
North American developments (1/2)
- Hugo Munsterberg - (
1866- 1916) 'how to find the best possible man, how to produce the best possible work, and how to secure the best possible effects.
- Arthur Kornhauser (1896-1990) mental health of workers - productivity and organizational effectiveness.
Robert Kahn (1918-) Work factors contribute to the health and well-being of employees.
Wat kun je vertellen over Steven Sauter?Integreerde behavioral sciences into the mainstream of research and practice targeted at the control and prevention of work-related illness and injury.
3 Work Organization and Health
Hoofdstuk focust op twee major issues:
- types of stressors
- types of people who are likely to experience these stressors
What are the major types of work-related stressors according to Cartwright and Cooper (1997)?6:
1) intrinsic characteristics of the job itself
2) person's role in the organization
3) relationship with other people at work
4) career prospects and progression
5) organizational factors, structure/culture/climate
6) Home-to-work interface
This chapter focusses on these psychosocial stressors that have influence on workers level of health and well-being:Work demands
Working hours and patterns
Wat houdt het onderscheid van LePine, Podsakoff in?Challange/hindrance stressors. Challange kunne mensen overkomen en zijn niet schadelijk, hindrance zijn niet te overkomen en zijn meestal schadelijk voor gezondheid en welzijn.
Wat zijn de voordelen van Challange stressors?Verbeternde motivatie en performance. Bijvoorbeeld work demands en workload.
Work demands (1)
Exessieve work demands zijn slechts.
Vroeger werd gedacht dat het een curvilineair verband had, U vorm. Niet meer.
Nu vooral Job Demands-Control model (Karasek) en daarop verder gegaan Job Demands-Control-Support (DSC) door Johnson and Hall 1988. - Zeggen dat control en social support modereren in de relatie tussen workload en performance variabelen/well-being.
Work Demands (2)
Directe impact work demands, irrespective of levels of control and/or social support.
Differentiates quantitative and qualitative workload.
Quantitative = amount of work to complete task
Qualitative = person feels they do not have skills or resources to complete task.
Time pressure - related to high anxiety and depression
Repetitive work & work underload - reduced job satisfaction & high distress
Time span may be different for different stressor such that high mental load may begin to affect one's health in a matter of days, wheras the health effects of shiftwork may not be realized for several years. (longitudinal research).
Welke drie role stressors zijn belangrijk volgens Kahn et al.?Role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload.
Role Ambiguity?uncertainty about how to perform ones roles, and unpredictability consequences of behavior.
Role conflict?Incompatible demands being confronted by the person. Door verschillende mensen verschillende verwachtingen geschept bijvoorbeeld.
Role overload?Numer of different roles a person has to fulfil at the same time.
There may be a non-lineair relationship, with people who work more than 48 hours per week begin most susceptible to health problems. Also other variables function as moderators in the relationshiop between working hours and well-being.
Hughes and Parkes (
2007) work time control moderated the relationship between number of hours worked and work-to-family conflict.
(indirect - work-familiy conflict mediator between working hours/family satisfaction. )
Negatative association between long work hours and self-reported health behaviors more with women.
(familiy lives, responsibilities)
Karasek'sDC model: moderating function in reducing the negative impact of high work demands.
basic logic underlying this model :
induces anxiety about job performance and consequences not finishing.
kan verbeteren door:
a) decision authority b) use variety of skills in their work, (skill discretion).
& other importance of control:
Maslow fundamental element of human functioning, moving toward self-fulfilment (
Warr's vitamin model
control enables make adjustments to the environment
niet eens over de modererende rol van control.
Voorbeeld Meier et al. :
locus of control.
Internal locus of control + control = positief effect
external locus of control + control = negatief effect
The level of matching between the stressors being encountered and the types of control available to the person determines if there's a moderating effect.
Mikkelsen (2005) horizontal/vertical control.
Hirizontal = influence over specific work, task
Vertical = broader organizational decisions and processes.
Control is important. Its buffering role not always confirmed. May be because of inappropriate conceptualizations in much research.
direct relationship = high support - high well being
mobilizing of available resources, which help reduce strain.
Mediation effect = Social support is intervening variable.
Practical support/emotional support may figure als mediators between work stressors/psychological health & wellbeing.
Moderator/stress-bufffering hypothesis = Job control, social support colleagues, suprverisors operate as moderator. (Job Demand-Control-Support model Johnson and Hall ).
underlying logic: people who receive social support when confronted with stressors will experience less strain. (inconsistent evidence).
Social support, critical to examine:
a) types of supported being provided
b) sourses of support
c) what kind of level of support does the person need and desire.
Is positieve communicatie van supervisors en collega's altijd negatief gecorreleerd met psychological strain?Nee, ligt aan de content van de communicatie. Kan anders positief gecorreleerd zijn.
High level conflict - negatively influence workers attitudes ot their jobs.(inabillity to perform optimally at work AND home.) Organizations actively support critical life experiences > high level satisfaction/commitment
Crossover theory strain experienced by individual results in strain experiences by spouse, family members, colleagues.
positive work experiences (work engagement) were transferred from working woman to male spouses.
Strain and work-family conflict have reciprocal relationship. (long-term nature of many work/family demands, such as children).
- life changes (devorce,house move) direct influces wellbeing/strain
- change/uncertainty work antecedents of work-related stress.
Probst (2005) economic stressors change >
1)individual health outcomes (strain) 2)organizational outcomes (turnover) 3) non-work outcomes (marital problems).
direct relationship between job insecurity and psychological burnout experience by both the worker and their spouse (via crossover). De spouse wordt ook onzeker over zijn eigen werk.
workplace violence: growth service industries employment, frequent customer interactions > increase workplace violence.
Agression: ridicule co-worker/rumours/sexual harassment experiences by 30 -70% most frequent. (not ignoring & pshysical attacks.).
Harressment/Bullying: partially responsible climate/HR culture. Org climate strongest indicator of sexual harassment.
negative influences: reduces performance/cohesion. More absenteeism (less podocutivity). 30% of the bossess are bullied. Female managers especially by male subordinates.
Welke factoren in een baan zorgen voor work-related stress?regular contact other people, high workload, tigh deadlines, threat of physical attacks are on top of the list.
Excessive paperwork and inadequate job recognition were associated with psychological strain in police/fire/ambulance officers to a similar extent as traumatic operational
Ook emotional labour = behave in a manner contradictory to one's
acutalfeelings, such as being polite to hostile members of the public.
More work-place physical violence with females > due to increase service jobs by females.
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Wat zijn de kernwoorden van Hoofdstuk 1?
Wat is het hoofddoel van Hoofdstuk 1?
Where did the term 'occupational health psychology' originate?
What is the vision of occupational psychology?