Summary Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science

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ISBN-10 1305480570 ISBN-13 9781305480575
113 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science". The author(s) of the book is/are Tom S Garrison. The ISBN of the book is 9781305480575 or 1305480570. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science

  • 1.1 Earth is an Ocean World

  • Where can most water be found on Earth?
    Most water is trapped within Earth's hot interieur compared to the oceans and the atmosphere.
  • How can the 'ocean' be defined?
    The vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of Earth's surface. It contains more than 97% of all the water on earth.
  • What is the average depth of the ocean and its coverage of the Earth's surface?
    The average depth of the ocean is 3682 meters and its coverage is 331 million square kilometers.
  • What is a 'theory'?
    A statement that explains the observations. Hypotheses consistently supported by observation, experiment or historical exploration often evolve to become a theory.
  • 1.2 Marine Scientists use the Logic of Science to Study the Ocean

  • How can 'marine sciences' or 'oceanography' be defined?
    It is the process of discovering unifying principles in data obtained from the ocean, its associated life-forms and its bordering lands. There are various disciplines within marine sciences, for instance geologists, physical oceanographers and marine engineers.
  • What is 'science'?
    Science is an systematic process of asking questions about the observable world by gathering and then studying information (data), but the information itself is not science. They interpret data.
  • What is a 'hypothesis'?
    A tentative explanation for the observation or measurement. It is a speculation about the natural world that can be tested and verified or disproved by further observations and controlled experiments.
  • What is an 'experiment'?
    A test that simplifies observation in nature or in the laboratory by manipulating or controlling the conditions under which the observations are made.
  • What is a 'theory'?
    A statement that explains the observations. Hypotheses consistently supported by observation, experiment or historical exploration often evolve to become a theory.
  • 1.3 Stars from Seas

  • What do stars do?
    Stars spend their lives changing hydrogen and helium into heavier elements. Most of the atoms that make up the Earth or the ocean are so forth formed in stars, billions of years ago.
    When the stars die, they eject these elements into space during cataclysmic (layers of gas bounce on the core) explosions. They die due to a combination of lost fuel, temperature and gravity.
  • How were the sun and planets, including Earth, formed?
    They condensed from a cloud of dust and gas enriched by the recycled remnants of exploded stars.
  • How were the oceans formed?
    They were formed by rain for 20 million years when the earth was cooled down enough to let water become liquid and not go away in the formation of vapor. Comets could have brought water to the Earth, but the most likely explanation has to do with water vapor that was trapped in the Earth's outer layers escaped to the the surface through volcanic activity in the Earth's youth. The vapor cooled down and condensed to form an ocean.
  • 1.3.1 Stars Formed Early in the History of the Universe

  • How did the universe come into existence?
    We know the universe has a beginning. Around 13.7 billion years ago, there was the big bang. All the mass and energy is believed to have been concentrated at a geometric point (unknown size); the moment when the expansion of the universe began. We don't know what triggered the expansion.
  • What happened after the big bang?
    The very young universe was extremely hot; but as it expanded, it cooled. About 1 million years after the big bang, the earth had cooled down enough for atoms to be formed from energy and particles that were dominantly present in that time. Most of the atoms were hydrogen. 1 billion years after the big bang, this matter began to form the first galaxies and stars.
  • 1.3.2 Stars and Planets are Contained within Galaxies

  • What is a 'galaxy'?
    A galaxy is a huge, rotating aggregation of stars, dust, gas and other debris held together by gravity. Our galaxy is called the 'Milky Way'. Every galaxy contains 100 billion stars and there are probably 100 billion galaxies in the universe.
  • What are stars?
    They are massive spheres of incandescent (emitting light as a result of being heated) gases. They are usually mixed with clouds of gas and debris.
  • At what speed are we moving around the galaxy?
    We are moving at 280 km/second and so we have made 20 circuits of the galaxy since the ocean was formed. One circuit takes about 230 million years.
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