Summary Organisational behaviour

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ISBN-10 9001807593 ISBN-13 9789001807597
197 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Organisational behaviour". The author(s) of the book is/are Gert Alblas Dutch. The ISBN of the book is 9789001807597 or 9001807593. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Organisational behaviour

  • 1.1 Motivation 13

  • Motivation: Is the sum total of motives that are operative within an individual that are operative at a certain time.

     or providing with a reason to act in a certain way

  • There are different theories as to the origin of motivation. These can be divided into three categories:

    • Internal forces (needs)
    • External forces (situation)
    • A desire to balance internal and external forces.
  • Internal forces are also known as tendencies, but mainly known as needs. 

  • Maslow's theory PSSES (basis for every person's behaviour) from low to high:

    1. Physiological needs: These are things that are necessary to sustain life (food and water, sleep and a certain body temperature).
    2. Security(Safety) needs: These are safety, security and protection.
    3. Social needs: These include human contact, friendship, love and a sense of belonging.
    4. Need for esteem: Esteem encompasses appreciation and respect by others.
    5. Need for self-actualisation: These are knowledge, the pursuit of truth and wisdom, self-development and personal growth.
  • Maslow's theory is based on two premises(a basis, stated or assumed):

    1. Deprivation: Is an unsatisfied need which leads to activation(people taking action).
      The strength of the activation will depend on the degree of deprivation.
    2. Needs are hierarchically structured. 
      Lowest in the hierarchy are the most fundamental needs. When these are satisfied, the other needs become dominant. People experience a need for recognition, only if their underlying needs have been satisfied.
  • Deficiency needs (Deficiency meaning the amount lacked): 

    Deprivation applies only to the first four needs such as physiological, safety, social and esteem needs.

    When people reach the level of the last need self-actualisation, they are no longer driven by a deficit but by the wish to develop themselves into the "best" human being possible.

  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs is NOT applicable to non-Western cultures.

    For example: For Chinese people, the need to be part of a group is greater than any other need.

    The need for self-actualisation refers to the individual's contribution to society, rather than striving for goals.

  • Alderfer's ERG theory: 

    1. Existential needs: These relate to material security.
      These needs are comparable to Maslow's physiological and safety needs.
      The Needs for:
      - Good working conditions
      - A regular salary
    2. Relational needs: Needs for good relations with other people and for love and friendship.
      People like to belong and they strive for appreciation and recognition.
      These needs are comparable to Maslow's social needs and for recognition.
    3. Growth needs(intrinsic desires): These are linked to opportunities for self-development.
      These needs correspond to Maslow's self-actualisation needs.
      The need for self-respect is counted among the growth needs by Alderfer,
      but for Maslow this need is part of the need for recognition.
  • Frustration-regression hypothesis: The more the satisfaction of higher needs is frustrated, the more important the lower-level needs become. Different types of need can be present simultaneously.

    People are primarily motivated to action if they perceive a deficit.

  • Alderfer's ERG theory: People whose parents had higher education turn out to have stronger growth needs than people whose parents had less eduction.
    Men turn out to have more existential needs and fewer relational needs than women.

    Women have more relational needs than existential needs.

  • McLelland's theory: APA

    Profile of needs: Every individual develops his own profile of needs in the first years of life.

    In this profile there is a dominant need and it determines the person's orientation, independently of the situation in which that person finds himself.  It becomes a stable charactereristic.

    Three profiles:

    1. Need for achievement.: If this need is dominant, the person is primarily focused on performing well.
      He will seek out challenging situations in which he can show what he can do.
    2. Need for power.: When this need is dominant, people strive for influence and control over others.
      They try to attain positions in which these can be achieved.
    3. Need for affiliation.: If this need is dominant, people are focused on the creation of good relationship with others.
  • Trial and error.: A process of guessing and failing. In order to achieve something, the person will try out different behaviors. Does not always produce the desired results but sometimes does.
    Behavior that is followed by the desired effect is more likely to be adopted the next time in a similar situation than behavior that elicits(provoke) no effect or a negative effect.

     

    Law of effect, Thorndike: The consequences of an action determine whether someone has the inclination(tendency, an act) to repeat the action or not.
    If the consequences are attractive, there is positive reinforcement.

    If the consequences are unattractive, there is negative reinforcement.

  • Conditioned: A certain action that is always followed by positive reinforcement will after a time automatically be taken in the same situation. This action is then conditioned and included in the behavioral repertoire.

    However, this action will not produce the same effect in every situation.

  • Stimuli: What consequences a certain action produces is dependent on the characteristics of the situation.

    These characteristics are called stimuli.
    Something that stimulates or acts as an incentive


    Conditioning:
    In the process of conditioning, a link is first created between a stimulus (situation) and a response (action). If such a link is made, the situation automatically elicits the conditioned action. 

  • Pulling force: People can display behaviour because this is elicited by the situation.
    Pushing force: People are encouraged into behaviour by their needs.

  • Two theories describe the considerations that form the basis of behavioral choice:

    The expectancy theory.

    The attribution theory.

  • Expectancy theory (Vroom): This theory describes the process of deliberation that determines a certain behaviour.
    The greater people estimate the likelihood of achieving positive returns and the more valuable they consider those returns, the greater the effort they will make.
    Whether people are inclinced to make an effort in their work depends on various considerations.:

    1. The connection between effort and performance. This is the estimated likelihood that a certain effort will lead to good performance.
    2. The connection between performance and returns. This is the extent to which someone believes that good performance will actually lead to attractive returns. example: more appreciation, job security and promotion.
    3. The value of the returns that certain efforts produce.
      Work can provide positive and negative returns:
      Positive returns:
      good pay
      - high status
      - good social contacts
      - possibilities for growth

      Negative returns:
      - frustration
      - physical discomfort
      - conflict
      - stress

      The value of the returns is the sum of the advantages and disadvantages these extra efforts produce.
      Example: Extra hard work leads to a positive evaluation from the boss but poorer relationship with the colleagues, because they see it as showing off. Promotion leads to more salary but also more work pressure.
  • The expectation model:

    the expectation model.jpg

  • The expectancy theory is primarily about subjective considerations and estimates:

    1. the extent to which the relationship between effort and returns (equitability) is thought to be reasonable.
    2. the extent to which people regard themselves as capable of producing good performance (self-image).
  • Attribution theory: Is a process by which people try to find out the causes of their own behaviour and the behaviour of others. Explains why people are willing to make efforts. If they think that they can achieve success with their efforts, they will make them.

    To find out the causes of failure or success, people compare themselves with others in the same situation and considering whether there is a set pattern to their failure or success.

    In determining the causes, these are taken into consideration:

    • Whether they frequently fail or succeed in similar situations.
      This enables them to establish whether there is a fixed pattern or whether it happens only occasionally.
    • Whether others fail or succeed in the same situation.
      If others make the same mistakes, it must be because of the circumstances.
      If only they make mistakes, it will be because they are not as good as others.
    • Whether they fail or succeed in many situations.

     

  • Internal attribution: If someone comes to the conclusion that he is the only one who does something wrong or does it well, then he will seek the cause in himself.

    External attribution: There is external attribution if people ascribe their success or failure to circumstances.

  • Self-image: This consists in the characteristics that people assign to themselves. When people ascribe their success or failure to themselves, this influences their self-image.

    Self-confidence: Positive self-image gives self-confidence. This person does not avoid challenges.

    Person performs poorly in situations-> feels incompetent -> tendency to fight shy of those situations.

     

  • Self-serving bias: People that have a tendency to be selective and attribute positive characteristics to themselves and negative characteristics to environmental factors.

    Fundamental attribution error: This error arises from the tendency to attribute other people's behaviour to their characteristics rather than to external circumstances.

  • Work-intrinsic motives: Work-intrinsic motives to perform well relate to the challenge posed by the work itself and to satisfaction in the work. (needs; self-development, independence, etc.)

    Work-extrinsic motives: Work-extrinsic motives to perform well relate to the returns that can be achieved, such as money, rewards, promotion, etc.

     

  • How people function in organisations is dependent not only on their needs but also on their abilities and competences, personality, attitudes and values.

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