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Summary - Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives
1 College 1
What do we mean with the term organization?
- The way people, organize work together/interact.
- 'an' organization is not a material object. it's also not a number of people.
- organization refers to: Structur/order & Goals/functions
- The term organization comes from the term organs and how the organs work together keeping people alive
- The way people, organize work together/interact.
At which levels can an organization exist?Micro level
What is an micro level organization?Small group, classroom
what is an mezzo level organization?School/company
What is a macro level organization?Society.
Do organizations have goals?This depends on who you ask.
Talking about the goals of an organization we can talk abuout the golas of the persons in an organization, but also about the goal of the manager etc. etc. it depends on how you formulate if you agree that an organization has goals or that the people in the organization has goals
Which perspectives are there in organization theory?different 'Schools'
why are the western countries whealthy accoording to Adam Smith?Western countries have divisions of Labor.
Why does division of labour produce whealth?
- people can do one task and don't have to switch between task. And so they can do one taks very quick
- People can be selected for a specific task. for some tasks you need a strong person, then you select a strong person.
- Probably a more consistent output.
- Development of specific tools/machines for specific tasks
- Free trade on markte -->leberalism-->invisible hand. (A fisherman can sell his fish and so can he buy breath and meat etc.
1.1 Chapter 1. Organization theory: challenges and perspectives
What is Organization Theory?Organization theory is concerned with the study of variou theories about organizations that have developed since the latter part of the nineteenth century.
The origins of organization theory lie in developing a social understanding of organization.
Some authors focus on bodies of the organization theory, whereas other (as in this text) explore different bodies of organization theory in a more or less disinterested manner.
What are Organization studies?Text that bear this title are typically concerned with the understanding of different themes in the study of organizations to produce knowledge about organizations that represent a contribution to social science.
What are Organization analysis?Is typically the study of the processes that underpin the operation of organizations, typically with the purpose of improving the operation of organizations.
What is Organization Behavior?Is typically concerned with developing an understanding of the ways in which members of organizations can develop behaviors that enable theire commitment to the purpose of the organizations so that typical themes include theories of managing people, motivation, leadership, creating effective workgroups, managing diversity and so on.
What is management Theory?Management theory is typically concerned with the study of theories about the nature and purpose of management that have developed since the latter part of the nineteenth century.
Text on management take an apporach that looks at the subject in terms of particular theories of management or epochs, periods in which a number of theories emerge, develop into a level of maturity and either retains relevance or transforms into some new theory of management.
Although management theory has been generally supportive of the activity known as management, the development of critical management studies takes a deeply scaptical view of conventional approaches to management.
What are management studies?Are typically concerned with the understanding of different themes in the study of management in order to produce knowledge about management that represents a contribution to scientifice approaches to, and understanding of, the activities known as management and leadership. This knowledge may be generally suportive of these activities or it may be deeply critical of them.
2 College 2
What is necessary to make decisions rational?
- Control by the rightful owner/master
- Specification of organizational designstructure
- Specification of rules (according to Weber it is very important - that the rules are written down)
- Personnel with knowledge and skills
- order and predictability
What are the essential characteristics of ideal type bureaucracy?
- Division of labour in offices
- Hierarchy of authority
- rule based decision making
- Impersonality of decisions
- written documents
- selection and promotion based on merit
- Separation of office and incumbent (no ownership)
What is Webers point of view about bureaucracy?
- It is the most rational form of organization
- Technically superior
- functions like a machine
Who came up with Scientific Management?Frederick Winslow Taylor 1911
There are Two roles in scientific management. What is the role of the Worker and where is it based on?Role worker:
- Does what he is ordered to do
- Contractual obligation
- Good wages
- Realistic workloads
- Work safety
What are Taylor's principles?
- Make work easy. Employer and use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way.
- Match workers to their jobs based on capability
- Monitor worker performance and ensure that they are using the most efficient ways of working
- Managers should spend their time planning and training workers.
There are Two roles in scientific management. What is the role of the Management and where is it based on?Rolemanagement:
- Dividing work into tasks
- analyzing tasks
- establishing "the one best way"
- Selection and training workers
- Assigning and supervising
- motivating, giving incentives
- Scientific knowledge
- Analytical skills
- Time-motion studies
What was one of the big critiques of taylorism?Taylor's scientific management theory states that there is "one right way"
Who are the founding fathers of organization theory?
- Adam Smith
- Max Weber
- Frederick Taylor (and Henry Ford)
- Henri Fayol
What was Adam Smith about?
- Division of Labour
- Markets --> Liberalism (So free market etc.)
Who was Max Weber?
- The protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
- Economy and Society
what where the starting observations of Frederick winslow Taylor for his scientific managment
- An engineer and hands-on manager
- Keen on improving industry
- His starting observations:
- Massive "waste" in organizations
- Traditional work methods are inefficient
- Workers are "economic animals"
- Passive, incompetent management
What is the concept of Taylorism/Taylorization of work?
- Fragmentation of work into routine tasks
- Management dictates: rules, 'fool-proof' production
- Execution by low-skilled workers
- Highly repetitive (short work cycle)
- Strict supervision
What did Henry Ford do?Henry Ford het the Ford Motor Company.
He applied taylorization in mass production
- assembly line
- supply chain management
- Labour supply
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