Summary Organizational Behaviour

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ISBN-10 1292016558 ISBN-13 9781292016559
100 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary 1:

  • Organizational Behaviour
  • Stephen P Robbins Timothy Judge Timothy Campbell
  • 9781292016559 or 1292016558
  • 2016

Summary - Organizational Behaviour

  • 1 Wat is Gedrag in Organisaties?

  • Wat is het doel van Gedrag in Organisaties en wie spelen er een grote rol in het behalen van dit doel?
    Het doel het effectiever maken van organisaties. Hierbij spelen managers een grote rol.
  • 1.1.1 Management funcitions

  • Wat zijn de functies van managers binnen een organisatie (=een bewust gecoórdineerde sociale eenheid die bestaat uit twee of meer individuen en functioneert op een relatief continu level om een gemeenschappelijk doel/doelen te behalen).
    De functies van managers binnen een organisatie zijn:
    1. Planning: wat is doel&strategie van bedrijf?
    2. Organizing: Hoe wordt het doel bereikt? (oa taken vaststellen)
    3. Leading (=commanding + coordinating): sturen, coördineren,                                       motiveren via effectieve communicatiekanalen. 
    4. Controlling: de prestaties worden vergeleken met vooraf gestelde                               doelen en als er afwijkingen zijn, worden deze                                              gecorrigeerd.
  • 1.1.2 Management roles

  • Wat zijn de drie overkoepelende rollen die een manager uitvoert?
    De drie overkoepelende managementrollen zijn:
    • Interpersonal roles
    • Informational roles
    • Decisional roles 
  • Welke rollen voert een manager uit binnen de interpersonal roles?
    Binnen deze overkoepelende rol, voert de manager de volgende rollen uit:
    • Figurehead:De manager moet als hoofd van de organisatie of eenheid bepaalde ceremoniële of symbolische handelingen uitvoeren, waarmee hij representatief is voor de organisatie of eenheid en de organisatie intern en extern vertegenwoordigt. De manager is ook wel het symbolische hoofd
    • Liaison: interne & externe contacten maken&onderhouden -> waardoor manager wordt voorzien in informatie&gunsten.
    • Leader: mensen aannemen, trainen, motiveren en disciplineren.
  • Welke rollen voert een manager uit binnen de informational roles?
    Binnen deze overkoepelende rol, voert de manager de volgende rollen uit:
    • Monitor: Informatie ontvangen en middelpunt van interne&externe informatie.
    • Disseminator: Informatie doorspelen naar leden van de organisatie.
    • Spokesperson: informatie verstrekken aan externe individuen. Organisatie representeren naar buitenstaanders.
  • Welke rollen voert een manager uit binnen de decisional roles?
    Binnen deze overkoepelende rol, voert de manager de volgende rollen uit:
    • Disturbance handler: corrigerende acties ondernemen bij onvoorziene, belangrijke problemen. 
    • Entrepreneur: zoeken naar kansen& nieuwe projecten -> prestatie bedrijf verbeteren.
    • Negotiator: organisatie representeren bij vergaderingen (met externe partijen), hierbij discussieert&onderhandelt manager, om zodoende het beste resultaat voor de organisatie/afdeling te bewerkstelligen.
    • Resource allocator: juiste verdelingen v/d middelen (human, physical en monetary=financieel). = belangrijke organisatorische beslissingen maken.
  • 1.1.3 Management skills

  • Welke skills beheersen effectieve managers?
    Effectieve managers beheersen i.t.t. Niet-effectieve managers:
    • Technical skills: Het vermogen om gespecialiseerde kennis en vaardigheden (verkregen door educatie&ervaring) toe te passen.
    • Human skills: Het werken met, begrijpen en motiveren van andere individuen en groepen.
    • Conceptual skills: De mentale capaciteit om ingewikkelde situaties te analyseren. (o.a. Belangrijk bij besluitvorming).
  • Voor managers zijn technische, kwantitatieve & analytische vaardigheden belangrijk, maar welke vaardigheden zijn essentieel voor een manager?

    Leiderschap en communicatieve vaardigheden.
  • 1.1.4 Effective versus successful managerial activities

  • Aan welke activiteiten doen alle managers?
    Alle managers doen aan de volgende activiteiten:
    • Human resource Management (HRM): =personeelszaken -> motiveren, disciplineren, conflict managen, mensen aannemen en training geven.
    • Netwerken: socializen, beleidsmatige discussies voeren en communiceren met buitenstaanders.
    • Traditionele management: gepland binnen organisatie, beslissingen nemen, controleren en beloningen aan de hand van prestaties bepaalt.
    • Communicatie: routine informatie uitwisselen & administratief werk uitvoeren.
  • Welke drie types managers kunnen we grofweg onderscheiden?
    Grofweg onderscheiden we de average, de successful en de effective manager.
  • Hoe ziet de verdeling van de activiteiten van average managers eruit?
    Average managers verdelen goed de aandacht tussen de verschillende activiteiten, maar meeste aandacht gaat naar het traditionele management, gevolgd door communicatie.
  • Hoe ziet de verdeling van de activiteiten van successful managers eruit?
    Succes=promotie binnen bedrijf. Belangrijkste activiteiten: netwerk, gevolgd door communicatie. Verwaarloost: HRM en traditioneel management.
  • Hoe ziet de verdeling van de activiteiten van effective managers eruit?
    Effectief= kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve prestaties en tevredenheid&loyaliteit van hun werknemers.
    Er wordt gefocust op communicatie, gevold door HRM. Traditioneel management wordt weinig toegepast.
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Summary 2:

  • Organizational behaviour
  • Stephen P Robbins, Timothy A Judge, Tim Campbell
  • 9780273719397 or 0273719394
  • 1st ed.

Summary - Organizational behaviour

  • 1 What is organizational behaviour?

  • Wat is de definitie van job performance?

    Gedrag uitgeoefend door het individu dat een positieve of negatieve bijdrage heeft aan de doelen van de organisatie.

  • Wat is task performance?

  • Wat is Organizational Behaviour?

    Het gedrag van managers en werknemers in een organisatie. Hun relatie en communicatie onder elkaar en alle skills die benodigd zijn.

  • What do Managers do?

    Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling

     

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  • De manager is iemand die m.b.v. meerdere taken de managing van een bedrijf op zich neemt.

  • Wat zijn de dimensies van job performance?

    1. task performance
    2. contextual performance
    3. counterproductive performance
  • Why is it important for managers to have good interpersonal skills?

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  • Wat is contextual performance?

    Bijdrage die verdergaat dan alleen je taak vervullen. Sociale en psychologische omgeving verbeteren

     

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  • Wat is counterproductive performance?

    Vrijwillig gedrag dat organisatiedoelen tegenwerkt.

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  • Wat is Organizational Behaviour?
    Boek: investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness

    College: impact that individuals, groups and structure have on organizational effectiveness
  • Wat are the 3 levels of independent variables causing certain OB?

    1.      Individual-level variables people enter organizations with certain intact characteristics that will influence their behaviour at work (biographical characteristics, ability, values, attitudes, personality and emotions). There are four other individual-level variables that have been shown affect employee behaviour: perception, individual decision making, learning and motivation.

    2.      Group-level variables the behaviour of people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way.

    3.      Organization system-level variables organizational behaviour reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual an group behaviour. 

  • Wat gebeurt er als diversiteit niet goed wordt gemanaged?
    hoge turnover, misverstanden en interpersoonlijke conflicten
  • Welke trends zijn er?
    globalisatie, diversititeit, man/vrouw verdeling, veranderingen in ras en etnische compositie, Baby boomers, nadruk op kwaliteit management, organisationele veranderingen en ethiek
  • Wat is positive organizational scholarship?
    Concerns how organisations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential-> stufy what's good about organisations
  • OB gebruikt systematisch onderzoek om voorspellingen te verbeteren over het gedrag van individuelen en groepen binnen de werkomgeving. Het onderzoek van OB kan productiviteit verbeteren, afwezigheid verlagen, turnover en deviant workplace behaviour verlagen
  • There's a gap between what science knows and what business does
  • There's nothing more practical than a good theory - Kert Lewin 
  • Human behaviour is a crucial factor in organizational success
  • Waarvan is Organizational Justice een consistente predictor van?
    OCB en CWB
  • org. goal -> process -> results
  • Waaruit bestaan Management Activities?
    - Traditional (planning, control)
    - HRM
    - Networking
    - Communication
  • Wat zijn effectieve managers?
    Ze krijgen niet altijd de promotie, zijn misschien niet de beste, maar krijgen hun werk wel af. Ze gebruiken veel communicatie
  • Wat zijn succesvolle managers?
    Ze krijgen wel promotie, ze netwerken veel
  • Wat zijn average managers?
    Ze gebruiken alle management functies ongeveer even veel, veel communicatie en traditional
  • What is Organizational Behaviour?

    field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations

  • Turnover wordt belangrijker bij vergrijzing
  • What are the 3 essential management skills?
    technical skills - apply specialized knowledge
    human skills - ability to work with, understand and motivate people
    conceptual skills - mental ability to analyse complex situations
  • Organizational effectiveness, impact op gedrag:
    - prestatie
    - turnover
    - absenteeism
  • What is good about diversity?
    increase creativity and innovation
    improve decision making (different perspectives)
  • Sociale context heeft meer invloed dan individuele verschillen
  • What is the challenge for managers these days?
    stimulate creativity and tolerance for change
  • Determinants of behaviour in organizations
    - individual
    - group
    - structure (organization)
  • Name a positive and negative result of a networked organization
    pos: create and structure work roles
    neg: blurred line between work and non-work time
  • Welke 3 onafhankelijke variabelen zijn er?

    1.      Individual-level variables people enter organizations with certain intact characteristics that will influence their behaviour at work (biographical characteristics, ability, values, attitudes, personality and emotions). There are four other individual-level variables that have been shown affect employee behaviour: perception, individual decision making, learning and motivation.

    2.      Group-level variables the behaviour of people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way.

    3.      Organization system-level variables organizational behaviour reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual an group behaviour. 

  • Name at least 4 challanges for managers
    responding to globalisation
    managing workforce diversity
    improving quality and productivity
    improving customer service
    improving people skills
    stimulating innovation and change
    coping with temporariness
    working in networked organization
    helping employees balance work-life conflicts
    creating a positive environment
    improving ethical behaviour
  • What are the 3 essential management skills according to Robert Katz?
    1. Technical skills: ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise
    2. Human skills: ability to work with, understand and motivate other people
    3. Conceptual skills: mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
  • Name the 4 managerial activities!
    1. Traditional management: decision making, planning & controlling
    2. Communication: exchanging routine information and processing paper work
    3. Human resource management: motivating disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training
    4. Networking: socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders
  • Characteristics of successful managers
    • They are successful in terms of the speed of their promotion within their org.
    • they spend a lot of time on networking (48%) -> political skills/networking are important for promotions
  • Characteristics of effective managers
    • They are effective in terms of the quantity and quality of their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their employees
    • They spend a lot of time on communication (44%)
  • What is evidence based management (EBM)?
    It involves basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. 
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Summary 3:

  • Organizational behaviour
  • Stephen P Robbins, Timothy A Judge, Timothy T Campbell
  • 9780273739630 or 0273739638
  • New ed.

Summary - Organizational behaviour

  • 1 What is organizational behavior

  • Which management function are there?

    Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling

  • Who created the management funtions?

    Henri Fayol

  • At first there where 5 managemet roles: Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling

  • Which management roles are there and who created them?

     

    Henry Mintzberg

    Interpersonal: Figurehead, leader, and laison

    Informational: Monitor, disseminator, and sporkesperson

    Decisional: Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, resource allocator, and Negotiator.

  • Which management skills are there and who created them?

    Robert kate: Technical, Human, and Conceptual skills

  • Which type of managers are there? And why are they different

    Average managers: focus on traditional management

    Succeful managers: focus on Networking

    Effective managers: focus on comminucation and HRM

  • 1.1 What managers do

  • Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals. 

     

    Managers do their work in an organization, which is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals.

  • 1.1.1 Management functions

  • The four management functions:

    Planning
    The planning function encompasses defining an organization's goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.

    Organizing
    Managers are also responsible for designing an organization's structure. This includes determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.

    Leading
    When managers motivate employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channels or resolve conflicts among members, they're engaging in leading.

    Controlling
    To ensure that things are going as they should, management must monitor the organization's performance. Actual performance is then compared with the previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it is management's job to get the organization back on track.

  • 1.1.2 Management roles

  • Managers perform 10 different roles that can be grouped as being primarily (1) interpersonal, (2) informational and (3) decisional.

    1. Interpersonal
    Figurehead
    Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature.

    Leader
    Responsible for hiring, training, motivating and disciplining employees.

    Liaison
    Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favours and information.


    2. Informational
    Monitor
    Receives a wide variety of information; serves as nerve centre of internal and external information of the organization.

    Disseminator
    Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization.

    Spokesperson
    Transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions and results; serves as expert on organization's industry. They represent the organization to outsiders.


    3. Decisional

    Entrepreneur
    Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change. They initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization's performance.

    Disturbance handler
    Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances.

    Resource allocator
    Makes or approves significant organizational decisions.

    Negotiator
    Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations, in which they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit.

  • 1.1.3 Management skills

  • Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills: technical, human and conceptual.

     

    Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialised knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialised expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job.

     

    Human skills encompass the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Because managers get things done through other people, they must have good human skills to communicate, motivate and delegate.

     

    Managers must have the mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situations. These tasks require conceptual skills. Decision making, for instance, requires managers to identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evaluate those alternative solutions, and select the best one. This all requires the ability to rationally process and interpret information.

  • 1.1.4 Effective versus successful managerial activities

  • Four managerial activities:
    Traditional management
    Decision making, planning and controlling.
    Communication
    Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.
    Human resource management
    Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.
    Networking
    Socialising, politicking and interacting with outsiders.

    Studies show that managers who are successful (defined in terms of the speed of promotion within their organization) had a very different emphasis from managers who were effective (defined in terms of the quantity and quality of their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their employees).

    Successful managers:
    Traditional management (13%),
    Communication (28%), Human resource management (11%) and Networking (48%).

    Effective managers:
    Traditional management (19%), Communication (44%), Human resource management (26%) and Networking (11%).

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Summary 4:

  • Organizational Behaviour
  • Stephen P Robbins Timothy Judge Timothy Campbell
  • 9781292016573 or 1292016574
  • 2017

Summary - Organizational Behaviour

  • 1 What is organizational behaviour

  • What is a manager?
    An individual who achieves goals through other people.
  • What is an organization?
    A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  • What are the 4 management functions?
    - Planning
    - Organizing
    - Leading
    - Controlling
  • What does the management function 'planning' entail?
    A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities.
  • What does the management function 'organizing' entail?
    Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.
  • What does the management function 'leading' entail?
    A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels and resolving conflicts.
  • What does the management function 'controlling' entail?
    Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
  • What are the 3 interpersonal roles that a manager performs?
    - Figurehead (symbolic head required to do a number of routine duties of legal or social nature)
    - leader (responsible for the motivation and direction of employees)
    - Liaison (Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favours and information)
  • What are the 3 informational roles that a manager performs?
    - Monitor (receives information, serves as nerve centre of internal and external information of the organization)
    - Disseminator (transmits information received form outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization)
    - Spokesperson (transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions and results. Serves as expert on organization's industry)
  • What are the 4 decisional roles that a manager performs?
    - Entrepreneur (searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change)
    -  Disturbance handler (responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances)
    - resource allocator (Makes or approves significant organizational decisions)
    - Negotiator (Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations)
  • 2 Organisational diversity

  • What are the 2 types of diversity?
    - Surface level diversity
    - Deep level diversity
  • What is ability?
    An individual's capacity to perform various tasks within the context of a job.
  • What are the intellectual abilities?
    - Memory
    - Number aptitude
    - Verbal comprehension
    - Perceptual speed
    - Inductive reasoning
    - Deductive reasoning
    - Spatial visualisation
  • What is General Mental Ability (GMA)?
    A general factor of intelligence, that is calculated using the positive correlations between the intellectual dimensions.
  • What are physical abilities?
    Abilities are defined as the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, ,etc.
  • What are biographical characteristics?
    Personal characteristics that are objective and can easily be obtained from personnel records.
  • What are the 6 biographical characteristics?
    1. Age (inversely related to turnover (older --> higher wage rates + longer holidays) and absenteeism (older --> higher rates of unavoidable absence due to taking longer to recover from health problems, age does not affect productivity, positive relationship with job satisfaction)
    2. Gender (no difference in productivity, but prefer different schedules, turnover rates same, absenteeism higher for women)
    3. Race (plays a role in selection processes)
    4. Employment tenure (positively related with productivity and job satisfaction, negative related to absenteeism and turnover)
    5. Religion
    6. Disability
  • What is race?
    The biological heritage that people use to identify themselves.
  • What is employment tenure?
    The length of the time that an employee has spent working for the same employer
  • What is diversity management?
    The process and programmes by which the managers make everyone more aware and sensitive to the needs and differences of others.
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Op welke 4 elementen wordt de sterkte gemeten bij de situation-strength theory?
  • Clarity (duidelijkheid): zijn de taken en verantwoordelijkheden beschikbaar en duidelijk?
  • Consistency: zijn de taken en verantwoordelijkheden verenigbaar met elkaar?
  • Constraints (beperkingen): is de vrijheid omtrent gedrag en beslissingen beperkt door factoren buiten de controle van het individu?
  • Consequences (gevolgen): hebben de beslissingen en acties belangrijke gevolgen voor de organisatie en de belanghebbenden?
Hoe luidt de situation-strength theory?
Deze theorie stelt dat de sterkte van de situatie bepaalt hoe persoonlijkheid zich uit in gedrag.
Sterke situaties: duidelijk laten zien wat juist gedrag is, verkeerd gedrag ontmoedigen.
Zwakke situaties: meer vrijheid om persoonlijkheid te uiten -> gedrag makkelijker te voorspellen a.d.v. Gedrag.
Welke 2 theorieën zijn over de omgevingsfactoren die persoonlijkheid ontwikkelen?
  1. Situation-strength theory
  2. Trait Activation Theory (TAT)
Wat houdt goal orientation in? (goed kennen!)
Goal orientation is de neiging om doelen te stellen in prestatie-omgevingen.
Welke 3 methoden van goal orientation zijn er?
  • Learning orientation: Gericht op ontwikkelen van competentie (capaciteiten).
  • Performance approach orientation: Laten zien dat je beter wilt presteren dan anderen.
  • Performance avoid orientation: Voorkomen dat je slechter presteert dan anderen. Bv. Avond voor tentamen lam zuipen, zodat je 'niks' aan die 1 kon doen. =zelfsabotage.
Wat zijn andere belangrijke karaktertrekken?
  • Core self-evaluation: evaluaties die individuen over zichzelf geven over hun eigen capaciteiten, bekwaamheid en waarde als persoon. 
  • Machiavellianism: pragmatisch, emotioneel afstandelijk.
  • Narcissim: arrogant, zichzelf heel erg belangrijk. -> charismatische leiders. -> voor prestatie van bedrijf maakt het niet uit of CEO narcistisch is.
  • Self-monitoring: vermogen om gedrag aan te passen aan externe, situationele factoren. 
    • Snel kunnen aanpassen, in elke situatie anders gedragen: sneller promotie & centrale positie in organisatie
  • Risk takingmate van risico nemen bepaalt hoelang het duurt voordat iemand beslissing genomen heeft en hoeveel informatie hiervoor nodig is geweest.
  • Type A/B personality: 
    • Type A personality: voortdurende strijd om steeds meer te doen in minder tijd. -> gemotiveerd&meer drive = sneller aangenomen.
    • Type B personality: voelt nauwelijks tijdsdruk.
  • Proactive personality: identificeren mogelijkheden, nemen initiatief -> meer kans op succes
Hoe voorspellen de Big Five traits ((karakter)trek) gedrag?
  • Extraversion
    • +: job/life satisfaction, aantal vrienden, leiderschap
    • -: impulsiever, risicovoller gedrag
  • Agreeableness
    • +: aardig gevonden, volgzaam
    • -: slechte onderhandelaars
  • Conscientiousness
    • +: prestatie, levensduur
    • -: minder creatief&aanpassen 
  • Emotional stability
    • +: job/life satisfaction, gezondheid
    • -: slechtere beslissingen in slechte buien 
  • Openness to experience
    • +: creativiteit, leiderschap, flexibiliteit 
    • -: -
Bekijk/leer het Big Five Model
  • Extraversion:
    • Extravert: spraakzaam, assertief & sociaal
    • Introvert: stil, timide & terughoudend
  • Agreeableness:
    • Hoge score: coöperatief, warm & vertrouwend
    • Lage score:  vijandig, koud & onaangenaam
  • Conscientiousness: 
    • Hoge score: verantwoordelijk, georganiseerd, betrouwbaar & constant
    • Lage score: niet georganiseerd, onbetrouwbaar & snel afgeleid
  • Emotional stability:
    • Stabiel: kalm & zelfverzekerd
    • Instabiel (=neuroticism): nerveus, bang, depressief & onzeker
  • Openness to experience:
    • Open: creatief, nieuwsgierig & artistiek
    • Gesloten:  voorkeur voor bekende en vertrouwde dingen & conventioneel 
LEES HET ANTWOORDT.
WANNEER JE TIJD OVERHEBT MET LEREN, KUN JE HET 'MBTI'  MODEL GAAN LEREN. HEB JE NOG NIET OPGENOMEN IN JE LEERSTOF/FLASHCARDS. AANGEZIEN JE TOEN VERWACHTTE DAT HET NIET VEEL PRIORITEIT HEEFT/HAD.
Welke 2 modellen zijn er om eigenschappen toe te kennen?
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): veel gebruikt door grote bedrijven, maar = dikke onzin!
  • Big Five Model