Summary Pathways to pregnancy and parturition

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ISBN-10 0965764826 ISBN-13 9780965764827
384 Flashcards & Notes
9 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Pathways to pregnancy and parturition". The author(s) of the book is/are P L Senger. The ISBN of the book is 9780965764827 or 0965764826. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Pathways to pregnancy and parturition

  • 1 Introduction to reproduction

  • Reproductive behavior in the male consists of:

    1. precopulatory stage
    2. copulatory stage
    3. postcopulatory stage
  • What is reproduction about?

    Reproduction is a sequence of events:

    • Development of reproductive behaviour
    • Achieve puberty by acquireing teh ability to produce fertile gametes
    • After copulation, the sperm and egg meet
    • Fertilization
    • Development of the preattachment embryo
    • Conceptus attaches to the uterus by the placenta
    • Conceptus grwos and develops
    • Fully grown fetus is born by the female giving birth
    • Female must lactate
    • Female must get cyclicity before se can be pregnant again
  • Reproductive behavior in the male consists of:

    1. precopulatory stage
    2. copulatory stage
    3. postcopulatory stage
  • Reproductive behavior in the female:

    • attractivity
    • proceptivity
    • receptivity
  • Females will display male reproductive behavior following injections of testosterone.

  • What is the acrosomal reaction?

    A fusion of the spermatozoal plasma membrane and the outer acrosomal membrane. 

  • What is the cortical reaction?

    It prevents penetration by additional spermatozoa.

  • What is pronuclei formation?

    It allows the male and female DNA to form a single nucleus.

  • The extraembryonic membranes of the preattachment embryo consist of the:

    • yolk sac
    • chorion
    • amnion
    • allantois
  • What types of placenta's are there?
    - Diffuese placenta
    - Zonary placenta
    - Discoid placenta
    - Cotyledonary placenta
  • Wat is the diffuse placenta?
    - Have uniform distribution of chrionic villi that cover the surface of the chorion
  • What is the zondary placenta?
    Have a band-like zone of chorionic villi
  • Wat is the discoid placenta?
    Forms a regionalized disc
  • Wat is the cotelydonary placenta?
    Have numerous dicrete button-like structures called cotyledons
  • How can you classify placentas on maternal and fetal blood streams?
    - Epitheliochorial
    - Endotheliochorial
    - Hemochorial
  • 2 The organization and function of the female reproductive system

  • The female tract is a series of tubes. Each tube is organized in concentric layers called:

    • Serosa (outer)
    • Muscularis
    • Submucosa
    • Mucosa (inner)
  • Waar bestaat het vrouwelijk geslachtsapparaat uit?

    2 ovaria
    2 oviducten
    uterus
    cervix
    vagina
    externe genitalia

  • What are the layers of the tubes in the female tract?

    • serosa
    • muscularis
    • submucosa
    • mucosa
  • What are the tubular components of the femal tract?

    • Oviducts
    • Uterus
    • Cervix
    • Vagina
  • What kind of structure arounds the reproductive tract?

    The peritoneum that is in continuous with the broad ligament.

  • What is the peritoneum?

    The peritoneum is the connective tissue lining of the abdominal cavity and completely surrounds or covers the reproductive tract.

  • What are the components of the broad ligament?

    • Mesovarium (houses the blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves that supply the ovary)
    • Mesosalpinx (the surroinding of the oviduct)
    • Mesometrium (supports the uterine horns and the body of the uterus)
  • What is the ovary?

    • Relatively dense structure
    • produces female gametes (ova)
    • produces estrogen
    • produces progestrone
  • What hormoens does the corpus luteum produce?

    • Oxytocin
    • relaxin
    • inhibin
    • activin
  • What is known as corpora albicantia?

    The degenerating corpora lutea

  • Why are corpora albicantia white?

    This is due to the increasing ratio of connective tissue to secretory tissue.

  • What are the primary ovarian structures?

    • primary follicles
    • secondary follicles
    • antral follicles
    • corpora lutea
    • corpora albicantia

    Figure 2-11, page 25

  • What are the layers of the antral follicles?

    • Theca externa (completely surrounds and supports the follicle)
    • Theca interna (Are responsible for the production of androgens under the influence of LH)
    • Granulosal cell layer (produce estrogen, inhibin and folicular fluid)

    Figure 2-12, page 27

  • What are the components of the oviduct?

    • Infidibulum (terminal end of the oviduct)
    • Ampulla thick (portion of the oviduct)
    • Isthmus (connected directly ot the uterus)

    Figure 2-12, page 27

  • What are the three types of uteri?

    1. Duplex (Two cervices)
    2. Biconuate (porly of highly developed uterine horns)
    3. Simplex (no uterine horns)
  • Which type of animals have duplex uteri?

    Marsupials and rabbits

  • Which type of animals have bicornuate uteri?

    Mare and cow (poorly developed horns) and bitch, queen, sow (highly developed horns)

  • What are the primary functions of the uterus?

    • Sperm transport
    • Luteolysis and control of cyclicity
    • Environment for preattachment embryo
    • Maternal contribution to the placenta
    • Expulsion of the fetus and fetal placenta
  • What is the cervical seal of pregnancy?

    Under the influence of progestrone, the mucus becomes quite viscous. The vix cous mucus temporarily glues the folds of the cervix together so that foreign material cannot enter the uterus during gestation.

  • What is the primary fucntion of the vagina?

    Serve as a copulatory organ, as well as the site for expulsion of urine during micturition.

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Latest added flashcards

Hoe is het verloop van de spermatogenesis?
Spermatogonia - spermatocyten - spermatiden - spermatozoiden 
How can you classify placentas on maternal and fetal blood streams?
- Epitheliochorial
- Endotheliochorial
- Hemochorial
Wat is the cotelydonary placenta?
Have numerous dicrete button-like structures called cotyledons
Wat is the discoid placenta?
Forms a regionalized disc
What is the zondary placenta?
Have a band-like zone of chorionic villi
Wat is the diffuse placenta?
- Have uniform distribution of chrionic villi that cover the surface of the chorion
What types of placenta's are there?
- Diffuese placenta
- Zonary placenta
- Discoid placenta
- Cotyledonary placenta
Bij welke soorten vind innesteling plaats?
Mens, knaagdieren
Welke diersoorten kennen geen maternale herkenning?
 Hond en kat
Hoe verloopt de ontwikkeling en regulatie van antrale follikels?
- Recrutering: hoge FSH, lage LH
- Selectie: lage FSH, gem LH, laag inhibine
- Dominantie: lage FSH, hoog LH, hoog inhibine
- Artresie: degeneratie van follikels tijdens hele follikogenese