Summary PR

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Summary - PR

  • 1 Introduction to Public Relations and New Media

  • What does pluralization mean?
    New media dynamize communication and make it indeterminate
  • What does polarization mean?
    Political and economic conditions limit pluralization
  • 2 Public Relations: Definitions and New Media

  • PR is developing relationships to help communicate about yourself
    Gordon
  • PR is a managementfunction
    : it involves planning and problem solving
    Grunig
  • PR is management of mutual understanding between an organization and its publics
    Cutlip
  • PR is not
    Communication management, corporate communication or advertising
  • 3 reasons why PR changes over time
    - Societal changes and publics
    - Understanding of Communications
    - New media developments
  • New public sphere as network for communicating information and points of view. Public sphere is not anyomore anchored around national institutions, but is constructed around mass meda system & internet around global communication networks
    Castells
  • Globalization is based on New Media
    - Global problems arise, environment, social justice, security
    - Civili society actors, NGO's, Social Movements and public opinion movements institutionalize, as state power is undermined by meta-power of global corporations.
  • New public sphere: Development of NGO's & Social Movements
    - Advocate needs, interests, values and espouse uncomposing values
    - Use media politics to buils legitimacy & support"USE PR & Capaign for media attention and pressure as corporations are fearful of consumers reactions
  • Grunig extending traditional PR theory. Generic principles
    1. Integrated in communications
    2. Seperate managementfunction
    3. Empowerment of PR
    4. Headed by strategic manager rather than comm technician or administration manager
    5. Involved in strategic management
    6. Two way and symmetrical communication
    7. Diverse
    8. Ethical
  • New media do not change PR theory, but facilitate the application of these principles. Giving up illusion of control, because:
    - PR cannot control perceptions or create publics
    - PR can only indirectly influence representations by managing messages, the behavior of organizations and communication with publics.
  • Digital tools for PR and strategy
    1. communication programmes
    2. environmental scanning
    3. segmenting stakeholders and publics
    4. anticipating and dealing with issues and crises
    5. measuring relationships and reputation
    6. evaluating communication programmes
  • Organizations are, emerge & consist in communication: They are
    socially constructed in discourses between actors like corporations,
    stakeholders, media, publics
    Luman et al
  • New communication Technologies speed up communication and increase connectedness between organizations and stakeholders. They thus increase dynamics & plurality of communication. What does this mean:

     

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    Allow one-to-one, one-to-few, one-to-many, many-to-one and many-to-many communication

    -          Allow synchron, asynchron communication

    -          Media do not determine how data is decoded. Political and economic conditions limit this pluralization and foster polarisation.

  • Mass media society since industrialization. Kenmerken (3)

     

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     Mass media play important role for constitution of reality

    -       Journalists as gatekeepers

    -       Agenda setting

  • Developments 19th and early 20th century
    The mass paradigm
  • The mass paradigm (19th & 20th century)
    Publics were perceived as mass
  • Researchers mass paradigm
    - Freud
    - Le Bon
  • 1980's Public sphere features:
    - Public sphere as network
    - Arise of stakeholder models and PR
  • Grunig & Hunt's  model
    One way : publicity -> one way: informaton -> two-way: assymetrical -> two-way symmetrical
  • Today new public sphere:
    NPS as network for communicating information and points of view
  • What does the new public sphere mean for PR?
    - Extending traditional PR theory
    - Towards new understandings of PR, bridging PR and organizational communication
  • Developments NGO's & Social movements (NPS)
    - Advocate needs, interests, values and espouse uncompromising values
    - Use media politics to build legitimacy & support
  • NPS in network societies features
    - No longer anchored around national institutions
    - Constructed around global communication networks and public opinion movements
  • Globalization is based on new media. Features
    - global problems arise
    - civil society actors, NGO's, Social movements and public opinion movements
  • NPS development of public opinion movements
    Use new media as organizing towards ethical consumerism
  • Ethical consumerism
    Consuments are concerned with environmental csr & bocott bad- & buy from good corporations
  • Wehmeier and Wincklr: PR research needs to integrate
    Interactive computer mediated communication process
  • PR research needs to awknowledge that:
    Organizations are not constantly contested in communication processes, but result of intertwined internal and external communication process
  • Organization view of PR
    Organisations use issue management and communication to stabilize organizational boundaries and identities
  • PR as second-order observation
    - How organizations observes it's environment and itself
    - How organization is observed by environment
  • Stakeholder salience model
    - Relevance build on power, legitimacy and urgency
    - More salient stakeholders have higher priority
  • Power of interes matrix
    Evaluation of effort invested in stakeholder management based on power and interest
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