Summary Principles of cognitive neuroscience

ISBN-10 0878935738 ISBN-13 9780878935734
545 Flashcards & Notes
9 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Principles of cognitive neuroscience". The author(s) of the book is/are Dale Purves. The ISBN of the book is 9780878935734 or 0878935738. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Principles of cognitive neuroscience

  • 1 Cognitive neuroscience: definition, themes and approaches

  • Which two fields contain cognitive neuroscience?
    Neuroscience as well as cognitive science
  • What does cognitive neuroscience seek to do?
    Measure cognitive abilities and behavior to understand how the human brain works at all levels
  • 1.2 cognition

  • What is the definition of cognition
    It refers to a set of processes (cognitive functions) that allow humans and other animals to percieve external stimuli
  • Name why it is hard to understand an study cognition
    They arise too rapidly to be conscious and they occur automatically in the background of current processes
  • 1.2.1 Natural philosophy and early psychology

  • Who where the pioneers of psychology in nineteenth century
    Wilhelm Wundt
    Hermann von Helmholtz
    William James
  • 1.2.2 Behaviorism

  • What is the definition of behaviorism
    The study that matched objective external stimuli to measurable behaviour (think about the black box effect and the pigions of skinner)
  • Who where the most important names in behaviourism during the twentieth century?
    B.F. Skinner and John Watson
  • Explain what operant conditioning does to rats
    Food rewards made rats more likely to engage in whatever behavior occurred immediately before the reward
  • 1.2.3 Cognitive science

  • What did George Miller found in the 1950's
    People are able to represent 7 unique items at one time this was called immediate memory
  • Define cognitive science
    Unifies research on mental processes regardless of the specific topic, experimental approach, method or even discipline.
  • What is the focus of cognitive science
    It focusses on information processing associated with cognitive participants (human and none), computational simulation of cognitive psychology, social psych, psychiatry etc.
  • What are cognitive models trying to describe
    The underlying psychological processes
  • Define psychological constructs
    Help explain diverse phenomena without reference to their ultimate causes in the brain
  • 1.3 neuroscience

  • Which animals have a nervous system?
    Even the simplest animals
  • What brain area where physicians interested in by the early nineteenth century?
    The cerebral cortex
  • What did Franz Joseph Gall discover about the cerebral cortex and what study field is associated with him?
    He thought that the size of the cerebral cortex changed behaviour. Thus he thought that you could feel the brain size on the scalp and know how someone's personality is. This is called phrenology
  • What is the name we use for phrenology in more recent years
    Localisation of function
  • Who and when discovered Neurons?
    Santiago Ramon Y Cajal before the turn of the twentieth century.
  • What did the discovery of neurons imply?
    It implies that cognitive processes are carried out by large populations of neurons
  • Signals that are transmitted long distance alone neuronal axons are called
    Action potentials
  • What are the chemical substances that neurons use to stimulate the cells they contact?
  • How did William Penfield create a systematic map of the somatosensory cortex?
    By running an electric current through the exposed cerebral cortex of the patient. By changing location and monitoring behaviour the map was made
  • How are neurological conditions neuroscientificly different from psychiatric disorders?
    Neurological conditions are more cellular problems 
    psychiatric disorders arise from neurotransmitter dysfunctions
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Latest added flashcards

US participants scored better on German cities than US cities! Why?
Used recognition heuristic
What is accumulated/integrated?
  • Perceptual choice → sensory information 
  • Value-based choice → ? 
    • Relates to value/utility
Multiple of such races lead to a distribution of finishing times = Reaction time
This is called Evidence accumulation
Social punishment:
Altruistic, as punishing one actor can be seen as a social reward
Insula (aINS)
emotional processing + aversive signals
how is the mismatch between true and estimated reward rate called?
Reward Prediction Error
What is encoded by dopamine?
  • Expected value of the reward? 
  • Value of the action? 
  • Change in information --> prediction error!
Rather than a normative theory (how people should behave), what is the Prospect Theory?
Prospect Theory is a descriptive theory (how people actually behave)
Utility: “Psychological value”:
What something is worth to you in this particular context.
Expected value:
What you will earn in the long run