Summary Problem solving in organizations

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ISBN-10 0521869765 ISBN-13 9780521869768
139 Flashcards & Notes
14 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Problem solving in organizations". The author(s) of the book is/are Joan Ernst van Aken, Hans Berends, Hans van der Bij. The ISBN of the book is 9780521869768 or 0521869765. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Problem solving in organizations

  • 1 Solution design


  • Business problem-solving entails two complementary
    aspects. Which are these and what are their roles? 
    Object knowledge: about the object.  
    Realization knowledge: knowledge of the realization of business solutions through planned change
    Process knowledge:knowledge of approaches and methods to be used
    in the analysis and design of business solutions and change plans, from problem definition to decision-making on proposed solutions and change
    plans.
  • On which aspect of business problem solving does design methodology aim?
    Process knowledge

  • What does theory-based in BPS within an academic
    programme specifically means ? Explain for each condition why?
    comprehensive : Problem solving should be based systematic review existing literate on the issue in question.
    Critical: Literate needs to be judged
    Creative: Use theory to adjust it to situation
  • Describe the 5  elements of the regulative
    cycle by Van Strien
    problem definition;
    analysis and diagnosis;
    plan of action;
    intervention;
    evaluation.
  • The regulative circle is the perspective of the student. What is the perspective of the company? Name and describe its phases.
    Design part: A plan for change of the problem
    Change part: Actual implementation of the design
    Learning part: Company has to learn the learn the change
  • Name some business problems characteristics.
    The are the result of choices of stakeholders.
    Depends on perception of performance 
    Depends on performance indicators
    Depends on norms
    Business problems are open ended
    There are many different interest regarding the solution
    Solved within time constraints , so not always best option
    Selected from 'problem mess'' and solved trough ''change muddle''

  • What kind of BPS problem should be avoided?
    perception problem
  • What kind of BPS should be accepted?
    Real problem
  • What kind of problem is defined on the basis of unattainable norms?
    Target problem
  • What kind of effort should graduate student have and which not?
    Effort commitment yes / result commitment not
  • What kind of properties should a BPS furthermore have ?
    Agreement on helping solving a well defined BPS
    Student should be partner in BPS
    Solution big enough for impact but small enough to be feasable
    Goal is actual performance improvement

  • Name and describe the 3 design which a student makes in a BPS.
    Project plan : design of the process  to produce the solution, actions to take ,actors involved , design of approach to the analysis and diagnosis of
    the problem;
    a solution (or object) design:design of the solution of the problem
    a change plan: design of the process that is to realize the object design 
  • What kind of deliverables may clients expect from students?
    Problem definition
    Problem analysis and a diagnosis of the major causes and consequences of
    the problem;
    exploration potential solutions;
    elaboration
    intangible deliverable relating to organizational support for the solution
    and change plan.
  • What is the purpose of a research?
    To solve a knowledge problem.
  • What is the purpose of a BPS project?
    Solve business performance problem.
  • What are the criteria for a BPS project?
    – performance-focused;
    – design-oriented;
    – theory-based;
    – justified;
    – client-centred.
  • In which two aspects does design focused methodoloy differ from the rational problem solving approach?
    see business problem-solving not as a purely technical-economic
    activity
    relax the constraints of the so-called ‘phase theorem
  • Instead of process phases we process in....?
    steps
  • What are iterations in the regulative circle ?
    Jumping to previous steps
  • What are explorations in the regulative circle ?
    jumping to subsequent steps
  • What kind of rule does a change agent have?
    Expert role
  • What kind of focuses do we have in problem solving?
    Content & process
  • What are the two approaches do we have in problem solving?
    Design & development
  • Explain the design approach.
    Is designed in go and realized in one go

  • Explain the development approach.
    Is designed  and realized in steps.
  • Explain Quinn’s logical incrementalism.
    strategic change realized in protracted sequence of incremental changes.
  • What is action research?
    Solving knowledge problems on the basis of subsequent smaller researches.
  • Design focused methodology is best suitable for.......components.
    technical-economic
  • Which approach is best suitable if political or cultural components of the problem are dominant?
    facilitating approach
  • Which approach is best suitable if their are components of culture/political & economic/technical in the problem are dominant?
    Development approach
  • When does the Checkland approach needs to be used?
    If cultural or political components are dominant
  • When does the TRIZ approach needs to be used?
    If economic or technical components are dominant.
  • When does the issue of bounded rationality appear?
    cases of strong uncertainty and complexity
  • If we suggest data is not available which approach should we use
    Development approach
  • What is necessary for the design approach ?
    We should be able to say something about the future performance
  • Define design...
    a model of an entity to be realized, as an instruction for the next step in the
    creation process.
  • What is the principle of minimal specification?
    Design should give all the information the
    makers of the entity need to realize this entity as intended by the designer
  • In which case is over specification harmful and in which not?
    Harmful in social systems, not harmful in material.
  • What is a more specific definition of design?
    ‘designing is the process of determining the required function of an object to be
    designed, combined with making a model of it’.
  • Describe the 3 steps of design:
    object design
    realization design
    process design
  • Pagina 24 
    Afbeelding
  • Name various kinds of specification:
    functional requirements:
    user requirements:
    boundary conditions:
    design restrictions:
  • What is outline design (also called
    the conceptual design)?
    formal design containing all the design decisions with respect to the key
    design dilemmas.
  • What are synthesis-evaluation
    iterations?
    basic iterations in the actual design process

  • the essence of all designing consists of two
    steps , describe them.
    synthesizes in the immaterial world of communication, with drawings
    and texts of the entity to be realized;
    evaluation of the expected performance of that entity against specifications
    ‘on paper’, that is in this same immaterial world.
    page 26
  • What is specification design iteration?
    If iteration process eventually fails to produce
    a satisfactory solution, this second type of iteration is started
  • key design knowledge consists  of.....
    general solution concepts
    methods to evaluate alternative designs ‘on paper’.
  • Describe the fundamental difference
    between the design approach and the development approach.
    Design done in immaterial world . development done in the world of action
  • What is the undisturbed process?
    model of what will happen if all goes according
    to plan
  • When does social system design has a real meaning?
    if it is realizable.
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De zes karakteristieken van bedrijfsproblemen

1. Bedrijfsproblemen zijn het gevolg van keuzes (door bijvoorbeeld belangen)
2. Ontevredenheid bij stakeholders die voortvloeien uit: Hoe zien zij de prestaties (= perceptie)
die zij interpreteren aan de hand van prestatie-indicatoren die zijn gebaseerd op normen.
3. Open eind: er is meer dan één oplossing
4. Bedrijfsproblemen zijn belast met waarden en belangen
5. Strakke beperkingen van tijd, waardoor de ‘’goed genoeg’’ gedachte snel van toepassing is.
6. Process puinhoop zorgt er voor dat er veranderingen binnen het bedrijf plaatsvinden (change
muddle)
trien cyclus
·Probleemstelling
- Welk probleem ga ik hoe voor mijn opdrachtgever oplossen?
- Beschrijven
·Diagnose
- Wat zijn de oorzaken en gevolgen van het probleem?
- Verbeteren
·Plan van aanpak, Solution design
- Hoe kan het probleem opgelost worden?
- Ontwerpen
·Ingreep
- Hoe kan de opdrachtgever de oplossing implementeren?
- Ontwerpen
·Evaluatie
- Heeft de oplossing het probleem ook daadwerkelijk opgelost?
- Evalueren
Van Aken noemt 4 manieren waarop je bij de analyse en diagnose gebruik kan maken van literatuur/theorie.
·Onderbouwen /bewijzen causale relaties
·Conceptualiseren / structureren van de analyse: aanreiken begrippen kader
·Suggereren van mogelijke oorzaken
·Guiding framework: kant en klaar causaal model, solution concepts
·Stappenplannen/methoden (noemt van Aken niet, maar wel relevant)
The various categories of specifications are:

- Functional requirements: the core of the specification in the form of performance
demands on the object to be designed.
- User requirements: specific requirements from the viewpoint of the user.
- Boundary conditions: to be met unconditionally (always have to be met).
- Design restrictions: preferred solution space.
plan van aanpak

1. Bedrijf In bedrijf kijken
2. Directe probleemcontext Probleem beschrijven
3. Doelstellingen bedrijf Waarom wordt het gedaan
4. Oorzaak-Gevolg diagram Laat ‘problem mess’ zien
5. Probleemstelling Hoe kan het proces heringericht worden
6. Stappenschema projectaanpak Globale aanpak project bepalen
7. Tabel met deelvragen, reden, theorie, aanpak Sturing uitvoer project
8. Project plan
noem de vier substappen van solution design

1.Specificaties     Aan welke specificaties moeten oplossingen voldoen? (Ontwerpen)
2.Synthese             Welke mogelijke oplossingsalternatieven zijn er? (ontwerpen)
3.Evaluatie             Welke oplossingsalternatief voldoet het best aan de criteria? (Evalueren)
4.Rechtvaardiging   Kan met het implementeren van het oplossingsalternatief het probleem opgelost worden? (Evalueren)
Wat is naming & framing?
Naming is benoemen van het probleem en de oorzaak. Framing is het in context plaatsen (van het probleem) zodat de boodschap duidelijk overkomt.
Wat is een target probleem?
Een target vastgesteld op onbereikbare normen.
Aan welke kwaliteit criteria moet een BPS project voldoen?
Verbeteringsgericht, ontwerp-georiënteerd, theory based, rechtvaardig en klantgericht.
De klant ziet de 5 stappen van van Strien in 3 fases. Welke fases zijn dat?
Design fase (Problem defenition & Analysis and Diagnoses), Change part (plan of action & Intervention) en learning part (Evaluation.