Summary Product and services management

ISBN-10 1412908647 ISBN-13 9781412908641
219 Flashcards & Notes
3 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Product and services management". The author(s) of the book is/are George J Avlonitis and Paulina Papastathopoulou. The ISBN of the book is 9781412908641 or 1412908647. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Product and services management

  • 1.1 Historical overview of the product concept

    • Basic idea that the product itself was a planned variable, rooted from the concept of differential (competitive advantage).
    • From the 1930 price is the basis for competition in the economic system and the consumer has no choice preference for different products.
    • Advent of the 20th century this changed and different bases for competition were brought up in production communication and transportation. Industries became oligopolistic (the supply of products was concentrated in the hands of relatively few sellers).
    • Chamberlin and Robinson abandoned the assumption of homogeneous products and developed the theory of monopolistic competition under which sellers sales are limited and defined by two more variables n addition to price, namely the nature of the product and advertising outlays.
    • Diferential advantage concept based on the view of Chamberlin is one of the most important concepts in marketing theory and argues that buyers have the freedom to differentiate, distinguish, or have specific prefenrences among the competing outputs of sellers.
    • According to Aldersen, product differentiation can be based on product characteristics but also varied wants and needs in the market place
    • Prior to the 20th century price was the main competition instruments and the primary weapon for the destruction of competing firms, today the product plays this role. 
  • 1.2.1 Product levels

  • What are the five distinct levels of the product?

    • Core benefit
    • Basic product
    • Expected product
    • Augmented product
    • Potential product
  • Nowadays most companies compete at the augmented product level and try to differentiate their offerings by providing product characteristics that are beyond the expected functional features.


  • 1.2.2 Product hierarchy

  • What are the five categories product hierarchy comprises?

    • Need family (basic need, example security)
    • Product familiy (all product classes that satisfy a basic need, example savings and income)
    • Product class or category (group of products within a familiy, example investment products)
    • Product line (group of closely related products within a product class, example investment accounts)
    • Product type (group of items within a product line, example capital guaranted accounts)
    • Brand (name of a product)
    • Item (unit within a brand or product line)
  • 1.2.3 Product life cycle

  • Most important product-related concept. 

    - Horizontal axis represents time

    - Vertical axis portrays sales/profits


    Useful mainly as a framework for developing effective marketing strategies in different stage of the life cycle of both physical goods and services. 

  • What are the stages of the product life cycle?

    1. Introduction
    2. Growth
    3. Maturity
    4. Decline
  • Introduction
    Importance of quality and quality control


    Introductory marketing strategies when price and promotion are considered together. 

    - High profile strategy (high price and high promotion level)

    - Low profile strategy (low price and low promotion level)

    - Selective penetration strategy (high price and low promotion)

    - Pre-emptive penetration (low price and high promotion)


    Basic factors in selecting these four strategies are: market size, market awareness, degree of price sensitivit, the type and nature of competition and comapny´s cost structure. 

  • Growth stage

    Improvement of products
    - Price focus on broadening  and promotional pricing opportunities

    - Promotion should focus to nurturing product preference

  • Maturity stage
    Long stage were management is facing formidable challenges

    - Changes in tangible and intangible characteristics

    - Search for incremental pricing opportunites including private branding contracts

    - Market may be said to be saturated

  • Decline stage
    Eliminate the product;

    - Concentration strategy: concentrate resoures only in the strongest market while phasing out promotional and distributioin activities.
    - Milking strategy: reduces market expenses to increase current profits.


  • 1.2.4 Product positioning

  • Positioning refers to the development of destined image/position of the product in the mind of the customer.

  • Perceptual map; graphically representation of the perceived position of a product in the customers mind.


    Perceptual mapping; the process initiates with the identification of the most important dimensions that differentiate products from one another. 



    - Identification of important attributes

    - Identification of close substitutes-main competitors

    - Identification of differentiated brands

    - Market segmentation

    - Identification of gaps in the market new product opportunities

  • Postitioning strategies (Aaker and Shansby, Wind)

    1. Positioning by attribute
    2. Positioning by benefits
    3. Positioning by price/quality
    4. Positioning by competitor
    5. Positioning by application
    6. Positioning by product user
    7. Positioning by product class
    8. Hybrid positioning (combination of more than one strategy


  • What are the mistakes made in positioning?

    • Underpositioning (buyers dont understand any differences)
    • Overpostioning (buyers have a narrow image of the brand)
    • Confused positioning (buyers are confused as to what a brand stands for)
    • Doubtful positioning (buyers may doubt about the claims in view of the products features, price of distribution)


  • Reposition strategies:

    1. Repositioning in existing customers
    2. Repositioning in new customers

    Directing a competitive brand in a worst position is depositioning.

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Latest added flashcards

What is a proces of product revitalization that has been proposed by Avlontins?

The multiple stage sequential process

Name two types of launching strategies
  1. Full market launch (first mover advantage)
  2. Rollout strategy (one segment at a time)
Name two types of product use testing?
  1. Alpha testing; conducted in house, laboratory setting
  2. Beta testing; takes place  on the premises of the intended market users.
What are the two types of testing?
  • Product use testing
  • Market testing
What is a protocol?

an agreement between three departments (marketing, technical and general management) on what the product will be and it defines the objective for the R&D effort.

Name to economic financial evaluation models?
  1. DEMON (desion mapping via optimum go-no go Networks)
  2. SPRINTER (Specification of profits with interaction under trial and error response)
What is dry testing?

Form of testing for products who are sold through the internet. Descriptions of the product are provided and when the customer start the order proces he/she is informed that the product is in development and that the company is testing market place reaction.


What are the two forms of concept testing?
  1. Mondiac testing; respondent is exposed to only one product
  2. Paired comparison testing; respondent is exposed to two or more product, also competitors, and is asked which one they would prefer
What are the stages of the new product development process?
  1. New product development strategy
  2. Idea generation 
  3. Idea screening
  4. Concept development and testing
  5. Marketing strategy 
  6. Business analysis
  7. Technical development
  8. Testing
  9. Commercialization - launching


1 -6 = pre-development

7 - 9 = post-development

What are the fiftheen stage of the new service development model suggested by Scheuring and Johnson?
  1. Formulation of new service objectives and strategy
  2. Idea generation
  3. Idea screening
  4. Concept development
  5. Concept testing
  6. Business analysis
  7. Project authorization 
  8. Service design and testing
  9. Process and system design and testing
  10. Marketing programme design and testing 
  11. Personnel training
  12. Service testing and pilot run
  13. Test marketing
  14. Full scale launch
  15. Post launch review


1 -4 Direction stage

5 - 11 Design stage

12 - 13 Testing stage

14 - 15 Introduction stage