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Summary - Projectmanagement, A practical Approach-English edition
1.1 Types of activities
Which kind of activites are there?
1.1.1 Improvised activities
Improvisation is usually used to do something unforeseen which requires an immediate response
The reaction will be ad hoc
Risk of chaos
1.1.2 Routine activities
Routine activities are repeated frequently
The patterns are predetermined
Work according to procedures or instructions
1.1.3 Project-based activities
PBA are in the midway of improvised activities and routine activities.
Non-recurring and limited duration
Work according to a plan
1.2 Examples of projects
- Building a new shopping centre, bridge, housing estate, nursing home or factory
- The technical development of a new product such as an electric razor, a computer or a car
- Developing a marketing plan or export plan for a new product like the iPad
- Reducing waiting lists in the field of healthcare
- Designing a new school course
- Formulating an information plan, sales plan, personnel plan or training plan
- Doing a theatre production such as “We Will Rock You” or producing a feature film or information film
- Doing the research for a thesis
- Developing a new house style for an organization
- Organizing a major exhibition such as a retrospective on Rembrandt
- Organizing a major event like Pink Pop, a major sports event or home fair
- Implementing a large-scale software package at an organization, such as financial software, logistics software, client management software or patient information system
- Setting up a website for an organization such as a hospital or commercial business
- Arranging a logistical system for providing meals in a hospital
- Adjusting a company’s logistics in response to engaging in e-commerce
- Reducing the total drug expenses at a hospital
- Developing a project to improve communication between the hospital and family doctors
- Relocating a large company to a new location
1.3 What is a project?
A project should have the following features:
- A project should have a clear starting point, known as the project start-up or kick-off.
- Because a project has a limited duration, a finishing date needs to be set.
- A project has a unique and clearly defined goal. The project’s outcome is the end product. This could be a variety of things, such as a new machine, building, report or even an event.
- The project goal tells why the sponsor has commissioned the project.
- The project result is the outcome of the project and contributes to the project goal.
- A project (usually) has a “client” who has commissioned the project and who pays for the project, commonly referred to as the “ sponsor”. This is the person who has an interest in the project result, provide the project team with clarity on the project and make important decisions.
- A project has a budget that needs to be determined in advance. The project group has to make do with that amount. The budget consists of money for funding the project and paying the project’s staff. A project without a financial budget should at least have a time budget applicable to those participating in the project.
- The project group usually consists of people from various fields of expertise working together as a temporary team. The members of the project may come from various parts of the organization and have their own particular skills. They include managers, financial experts, economists, marketing experts and technicians. Each is familiar with the terminology of his or her own field and has his or her own perspective on things. This makes working on a project both interesting and challenging.
- A project has its own organizational set-up. An employee who is temporarily relieved of his normal duties to take part in a project will suddenly have a different person to be accountable to: the project manager. The person (or body) the project manager is accountable to is the sponsor.
- A project is initiated as a purposeful move. It never starts spontaneously. It has to be initiated and organized consciously. The sponsor appoints a project manager with sufficient authority and the capacities to give shape to the project. The project manager then draws up a project plan in consultation with the sponsor. This project plan describes the project in detail.
1.5 Types of projects
- Technical projects
- Social projects
- Commercial projects
- (Mixed projects)