Summary Psychology :)

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Summary - Psychology :)

  • 1.1 Introduction to Learning and Classical Conditioning

  • What is Learning?
    Learning is the process of acquiring new and enduring information and behaviours through experience
  • Name the 4 branches of Learning
    1. Associative Learning 
    2. Observational Learning
    3. Cognitive Learning
    4. Biopsychosocial influences on Learning 
  • What is Observational Learning?
    Learning through observing
  • What is cognitive learning?
    Acquiring mental info. That guides behaviours
  • What is the meaning of biopsychosocial influences on learning?
    Learning is the product of biological, psychological and social-cultural influences
  • What is associative learning?
    Associative Learning is when you learn that certain events occur together
  • What are the 2 branches if associative learning?
    1. Classical conditioning 
    2. Operant conditioning 
  • Who is Associative Learning connected with? (NAME)
    Pavlov
  • Describe Pavolv's experiment
    Before conditioning, gave dog food and it salivated
    During conditioning, rang bell and gave dog food
    After conditioning, rang bell and gave dog food
  • Before conditioning, when Pavolv gave dog food and the dog salivated, is it learnt?
    No, it is not learnt. It is a biological response.
  • Formula for UCS, NS and CS and UCR
    UCS - UCR
    NS + UCS - UCR
    CS - CR 
  • What are the 4 principles of Classical conditioning?
    1. Stimulus Generalization
    2. Stimulus Discrimination
    3. Extinction
    4. Spontaneous Recovery 
  • What is the terminology eg. Pavlov rang bell and did not give dog  food. After a few times, dog did not salivate.
    Extinction
  • Terminology: Sometimes, when you ring bell, dog will salivate
    Spontaneous Recovery
  • What is extinction?
    The disappearance of a previously learnt behaviour when the behaviour is not reinforced
  • What is Stimulus Generalisation?
    Similar stimulus = similar response
    Eg. For example, During Pavlov's experiment, when he used a high pitched bell or a low pitched bell, it did not matter. The dog still salivated.

    Eg. If you like Nutella, you might like another kind of cholocate spread.
    Or if you are bitten by a black dog when you were younger = afraid of all dogs in the future. 
  • What is Stimulus Discrimination?
    Stimulus Discrimination is the ability to recognise differences among stimulus that are similar. 

    Eg. If you are afraid of guard dogs/bull dogs, you might not be afraid of cute dogs.
  • What is spontaneous recovery? Example.
    Eg. When you ring the bell after extinction has set in, sometimes the dog will salivate
  • 1.2 Operant Conditioning

  • How many reinforcers are there and what are they?
    1. Positive 
    2. Negative
    3. Primary
    4. Secondary
    5. Immediate
    6. Delayed
  • What is learning based on?
    Consequences
  • What does a positive reinforcer do?
    Strengthens response by a pleasurable stimulus immediately after
  • For a positive reinforcer to work, what must happen?
    The person must value the reinforcer
  • Can an activity be a positive reinforcer?
    Yes
  • What do children love?
    1. Attention
    2. Money
    3. Approval
  • What does a negative reinforcer do?
    Strengthens a response by removing a negative stimulus
  • What is the common mistake that people have of a negative reinforcer?
    They think that negative reinforcers are punishment
  • Generally, what does a reinforcer aim to do?
    Regardless of a negative or positive reinforcer, it aims to strengthen a behaviour by adding or removing a stimulus
  • What are primary reinforcers? And the characteristics of it?
    It is innate, unlearned. It is rewards that everyone enjoys. For example, food and shelter, sex etc.
  • What are secondary reinforcers?
    It is conditioned. We have learnt to value it. For example, money/good grades.
  • What is an immediate reinforcer and what is the characteristics of it?
    Reward occurs immediately after a behaviour. For example, If you do homework now, i will cook pizza tonight.
  • What is a delayed reinforcer?
    There is a time delay between a desired response and delivery of the reward.
    For example, Paycheck at the end of the month
  • Who is shaping by?
    Skinner
  • What type of conditioning is shaping? And why?
    It is operant conditioning b/c it aims to strengthen a behaviour
  • What is shaping? How does it work?
    It gradually guides towards closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour.
  • What is the difference between shaping and other methods?
    It rewards throughout the process and not at the end of the process.
  • When is shaping used?
    When it wants to establish a new behaviour. Eg. Learning an instrument or a language. When rewards need to be gradual until desired goal is reached
  • What does punishment aim to do?
    It aims to decrease frequency of behaviour
  • What is positive punishment?
    It is to give a bad stimulus. For example, when you speed when driving, police will issue you a fine :<
  • What is negative punishment?
    It is to remove a pleasurable stimulus. For example, when you drink drive, police will remove your right to drive
  • What are the two things that make up cognitive influences on learning?
    Cognitive map and latent learning
  • What is a cognitive map?
    It is a mental representation of one's environment/physical location
  • What is latent learning?
    It is learning that occurs but not apparent until there is an incentive to do it.

    • A college freshman is taught study skills but does not study until failing several exams. Upon using the skills taught to him, he is successful in exams.
  • What is biopsychosocial influences on learning?
    It is the product of the interaction of biological, psychological and social-cultural influences.
  • What is learning by observation?
    Watching and imitating others. No direct instruction or formal learning experience. 

    For example, you know how to open the door w/o anyone teaching you how to.
  • What are the 2 effects that observational learning has?
    1. Prosocial
    2. Antisocial
  • What is prosocial and antisocial effects? Classify into positive and negative
    Prosocial - Positive
    Antisocial- Negative
  • When you watch TV, sometimes you see violence. Let's say you have a kid and he follows the violent behaviour. What is the effect called?
    Violence-viewing effect
  • What is the process of observing and imitating other's behaviour called?
    Modelling
  • Who did the Bobo doll experiment
    Bandura
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