Summary Psychology :)

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Summary - Psychology :)

  • 1.1 Introduction to Learning and Classical Conditioning

  • What is Learning?
    Learning is the process of acquiring new and enduring information and behaviours through experience
  • Name the 4 branches of Learning
    1. Associative Learning 
    2. Observational Learning
    3. Cognitive Learning
    4. Biopsychosocial influences on Learning 
  • What is Observational Learning?
    Learning through observing
  • What is cognitive learning?
    Acquiring mental info. That guides behaviours
  • What is the meaning of biopsychosocial influences on learning?
    Learning is the product of biological, psychological and social-cultural influences
  • What is associative learning?
    Associative Learning is when you learn that certain events occur together
  • What are the 2 branches if associative learning?
    1. Classical conditioning 
    2. Operant conditioning 
  • Who is Associative Learning connected with? (NAME)
  • Describe Pavolv's experiment
    Before conditioning, gave dog food and it salivated
    During conditioning, rang bell and gave dog food
    After conditioning, rang bell and gave dog food
  • Before conditioning, when Pavolv gave dog food and the dog salivated, is it learnt?
    No, it is not learnt. It is a biological response.
  • Formula for UCS, NS and CS and UCR
    UCS - UCR
    NS + UCS - UCR
    CS - CR 
  • What are the 4 principles of Classical conditioning?
    1. Stimulus Generalization
    2. Stimulus Discrimination
    3. Extinction
    4. Spontaneous Recovery 
  • What is the terminology eg. Pavlov rang bell and did not give dog  food. After a few times, dog did not salivate.
  • Terminology: Sometimes, when you ring bell, dog will salivate
    Spontaneous Recovery
  • What is extinction?
    The disappearance of a previously learnt behaviour when the behaviour is not reinforced
  • What is Stimulus Generalisation?
    Similar stimulus = similar response
    Eg. For example, During Pavlov's experiment, when he used a high pitched bell or a low pitched bell, it did not matter. The dog still salivated.

    Eg. If you like Nutella, you might like another kind of cholocate spread.
    Or if you are bitten by a black dog when you were younger = afraid of all dogs in the future. 
  • What is Stimulus Discrimination?
    Stimulus Discrimination is the ability to recognise differences among stimulus that are similar. 

    Eg. If you are afraid of guard dogs/bull dogs, you might not be afraid of cute dogs.
  • What is spontaneous recovery? Example.
    Eg. When you ring the bell after extinction has set in, sometimes the dog will salivate
  • 1.2 Operant Conditioning

  • How many reinforcers are there and what are they?
    1. Positive 
    2. Negative
    3. Primary
    4. Secondary
    5. Immediate
    6. Delayed
  • What is learning based on?
  • What does a positive reinforcer do?
    Strengthens response by a pleasurable stimulus immediately after
  • For a positive reinforcer to work, what must happen?
    The person must value the reinforcer
  • Can an activity be a positive reinforcer?
  • What do children love?
    1. Attention
    2. Money
    3. Approval
  • What does a negative reinforcer do?
    Strengthens a response by removing a negative stimulus
  • What is the common mistake that people have of a negative reinforcer?
    They think that negative reinforcers are punishment
  • Generally, what does a reinforcer aim to do?
    Regardless of a negative or positive reinforcer, it aims to strengthen a behaviour by adding or removing a stimulus
  • What are primary reinforcers? And the characteristics of it?
    It is innate, unlearned. It is rewards that everyone enjoys. For example, food and shelter, sex etc.
  • What are secondary reinforcers?
    It is conditioned. We have learnt to value it. For example, money/good grades.
  • What is an immediate reinforcer and what is the characteristics of it?
    Reward occurs immediately after a behaviour. For example, If you do homework now, i will cook pizza tonight.
  • What is a delayed reinforcer?
    There is a time delay between a desired response and delivery of the reward.
    For example, Paycheck at the end of the month
  • Who is shaping by?
  • What type of conditioning is shaping? And why?
    It is operant conditioning b/c it aims to strengthen a behaviour
  • What is shaping? How does it work?
    It gradually guides towards closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour.
  • What is the difference between shaping and other methods?
    It rewards throughout the process and not at the end of the process.
  • When is shaping used?
    When it wants to establish a new behaviour. Eg. Learning an instrument or a language. When rewards need to be gradual until desired goal is reached
  • What does punishment aim to do?
    It aims to decrease frequency of behaviour
  • What is positive punishment?
    It is to give a bad stimulus. For example, when you speed when driving, police will issue you a fine :<
  • What is negative punishment?
    It is to remove a pleasurable stimulus. For example, when you drink drive, police will remove your right to drive
  • What are the two things that make up cognitive influences on learning?
    Cognitive map and latent learning
  • What is a cognitive map?
    It is a mental representation of one's environment/physical location
  • What is latent learning?
    It is learning that occurs but not apparent until there is an incentive to do it.

    • A college freshman is taught study skills but does not study until failing several exams. Upon using the skills taught to him, he is successful in exams.
  • What is biopsychosocial influences on learning?
    It is the product of the interaction of biological, psychological and social-cultural influences.
  • What is learning by observation?
    Watching and imitating others. No direct instruction or formal learning experience. 

    For example, you know how to open the door w/o anyone teaching you how to.
  • What are the 2 effects that observational learning has?
    1. Prosocial
    2. Antisocial
  • What is prosocial and antisocial effects? Classify into positive and negative
    Prosocial - Positive
    Antisocial- Negative
  • When you watch TV, sometimes you see violence. Let's say you have a kid and he follows the violent behaviour. What is the effect called?
    Violence-viewing effect
  • What is the process of observing and imitating other's behaviour called?
  • Who did the Bobo doll experiment
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Do males have menopause? If no, what do they have? And can it result in psychological problems?
No, they can reproduce until the day they die. But they experience a decline in sperm count, speed of ejaculation. Because of decreased virility, it might lead to psychological problems
What did Erikson say about how we should view death and dying?
We should face death with dignity and openness. If we do, it helps us to complete life cycle with a sense of meaningfulness. We should review one's life with integrity, not despair. Integrity: Feeling that one's life has been meaningful and worthwhile.
What are people's reaction to death?
It varies by culture and individuals within cultures
What is the most difficult separation? [Death and dying] And when is grief severe?
For most people, the death of a loved one is the most difficult separation. For some, grief is severe especially if it is before expected time on social clock.
How to age successfully? What are the conditions?
Biological influence: No genetic disposition to early cognitive and physical decline. Appropriate nutrition

Psychological influence: Optimistic outlook. Physically and mentally active lifestyle 

Social-cultural influence: Support from family and friends. Cultural respect for aging. Safe living conditions
What did Freud and Erikson say about intimacy and generativity?
A healthy adult is one who can love and work at the same time
What do old people focus on when asked if they could relive their lives, what would they do differently?
Regrets rather than mistakes
What is the well-being across the lifespan? [negative]
Smaller social network, fewer friendships and more lonely
What is the well-being across the lifespan? [postive]
Over 65's are relatively happy, they have a stable self esteem and more positive than negative feelings
What are 2 adulthood commitments that dominate adulthood?
Intimacy and Generativity. 

Intimacy: the ability to form emotionally close relationships with people 

Generativity: Productivity
- Be productive and support future generations