Summary Psychology

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ISBN-10 0393116824 ISBN-13 9780393116823
1541 Flashcards & Notes
162 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Psychology". The author(s) of the book is/are Henry Gleitman, James Gross, Daniel Reisberg. The ISBN of the book is 9780393116823 or 0393116824. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Psychology

  • 1 Evolution and the biological roots of behavior

  • Waarom is het van belang om de evolutie van het brein te leren kennen

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  • evolutionair kijken naar het brein laat zien welke functies zich vroeger dan wel later hebben ontwikkeld

  • 1.1 Making Observations

  • What is a variable?

    Any characteristic whose value can change

  • What do we look for in psychology?
    Variables that seem linked to each other.
  • What is a testable hypothesis?

    A prediction that has been formulated specifically enough so that it is clear what observations would confirm the prediction and what observations would challenge it.

  • What is a variable?
    Any characteristic whose values can change
  • What is an operational definition?

    A definition that translates the variable we want to assess into a specific procedure or measurement.

  • It's important that for the operational definition to have construct validity- that us, it must truly reflect the variable named in our hypothesis.

  • What is a dependent variable?

    The variable that is measured or recorded in an experiment.

  • What is an independent variable?

    The variable that the experimenter manipulates as a basis for making predictions about the dependent variable.

  • The populations is defined as the entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.

  • The subset of the population that the investigator studies in order to learn about the population at large is called a sample.

  • What is random sampling?

    A procedure in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being picked to participate in a study.

  • How do we call an intensive study of one person?

    Case study

  • The degree to which a study's participants, stimuli, and procedures adequately reflect the world as it actually is, is called?

    external validity

  • What are a study's demand characteristics?

    The cues in a study that might tell a research participant what behaviors are expected or desirable in that setting.

  • The technique of assigning participants to experimental conditions while keeping both the participants and the researchers unaware of who is assigned to which group is called?

    Double-blind design

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  • 1.1.2 Systematically collecting data

  • What is confirmation bias?
    People's tendendcy to recall evidence that confirms their views more easily than they can recall evidence to the contrary.
  • What is anecdotal evidence?
    Evidence that involves just one or two cases, has been informally collected and is now informally reported. 
  • What's important in collecting data?
    -We need to record the data in some neutral and objective way.
    -Our data collection has to be systematic
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