Summary Psychology exam

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Summary - Psychology exam

  • 1 Exam

  • an internal state that activates and gives direction to our thougths
  • primary motive
    hunger, thirst, sex, avoidance of pain
  • general preference among humans to be with others
    group motive
  • the highest motive people can experience according to Maslow:
  • elements of emotion
    a stimulus situation
    emotion we feel
    psychological arousal
  • 'we feel sorry because we cry' is an explanation of emotion associated with:
    the james-Lange theory
  • theories empphasize the interpretation both stimuli and bodily in explaining emotions
    cognitive theory of emotion and cannon-bard theory of emotion
  • the maintantence of steady states o temperature, blood pressure, body fluid balance and other biological variables is called:
  • if the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is surgically damaged
    eat themselves to obesity
  • which of the following helps to define the term personality?
    • typical characteristics for a person
    • charactersitics makes person unique
    • acting, thinking and feeling
  • according to Freud, primitive instictual motives and repressed memories are stored in the 
    unconscious mind
  • Id: 

    Operates according to the pleasure principle
    • Primitive and unconscious, hidden from view • Contains basic drives
  • • Ego:
     Operates according to the reality principle
    • Mediates the conflict between id and superego
  • • Superego: 
    Consists of moral ideals and conscience 
  • according to Freud which part of the mind is dominated by the pleasure prniciple?
    the id
  • the oedipus complex and the electra complex develop during
    phallic stage
  • According to Adler, to develop a healthy personality it is necessary to learn to express
    selfish interest
  • to the social learning theorist each of the following processes is  important in the development of personality 
    classical conditioning
    operant conditioning
  • according to bandura self-efficacy and regulation emphasize the importance of what determinant of behavior
  • according to bandura the mutual interaction between a person's behaviour and his or her social learning environemtn is called

    Reciprocal determinism

    • Influential, mutual relationship among behavior, cognitive factors, and environment 
  • according to maslow, all of the following are characteristics of a self-acualizing person
    • high level of moral development
    • a commitment to some task
    • openness and honesty
  • Gordon Allport calls the traits that influence and organize much of our behavior are:
    cardinal traits
  • 5 factors of personality traits
    • neuroticism
    • extraversion
    • conscientiousness
    • openness
    • agreeableness
  • the view that behaviour is influenced by characterstics of both the person and the situation is called
    interactionism + situationism
  • one major goal of the id
    punishing the ego
  • two coping strategies

    Problem-focused coping, which is designed to reduce stress by dealing with the problem

    Emotion-focused coping, in which one tries to manage the negative emotions (defense mechanism)
    • Thought Suppression Can be maladaptive
    • Distraction works better 
  • person attempts to manage stressful demands
  • behaviour to be considered abnormal
    • it deviates from its norm
    • it is maladaptive
    • the individual experienmces personal distress
  • exteremely uncomfortable walking outside home ,and other public places
  • a disorder in which long periods of calm are broken by sharp, intense periods of anxiety is called
    panic anxiety disorder
  • in psychoanalytic theory, the sequences of the first three developmental stages is 
    oral, anal, phalic
  • according to psychoanalytical theory defence mechanisms develop in order to prevent or reduceq
    anxiety between id and superego
  • according to Freud, a boy whose id wishes his father dead so he can have his mother all to himself is experiencing
    Oedipus complex
  • major emphasis of socail learning theorist
    consistency of an individual behaviour
  • stress can be linked to
    heart disease, strokes, decreased immunity to infections
  • a source of stress characterized by the inability to satisfy a motive is called
    life events
  • posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to
    war veterans, rape victims, concentration camp survivors
  • obsession refer to
    psychotic behavior
  • compulsion
    repeatedly perform a ritual, cleaning checking
  • somatoform disorder
    Mental disorders in which psychological symptoms take a physical, or somatic, form even though no physical causes can be found 
  • dissociate disorder involves an inability to remember one's previous life nd involves wandering
    dissociative fugueq
  • individuals who suffer pain that has no physical cause 
    conversion disorder & somatoform
  • conflicts that require the lesser of two evils are
    avoidance-avoidance conflicts
  • excited about graduating, but scared to be on his own
    approach-avoidance conflict
  • in which stage of general adaptation syndrome is resistance to stress lowered?
    resistance stage
  • in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome is the body's resources fully mobilized and resistant to stress?
    alarm stage
  • research suggests that immune system functioning can be affected by
  • stress evenets are less stressful when they are
    controllable and predictabl
  • phobia is a
    • term for an intense irrational fear
    • term for fear of a particular object or situation
    • subcategory of anxiety disorder
  • Michael is terrified in social situations, fears speaking and eating in public areas
    social phobia
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