Summary Psychology in Education

ISBN-10 1408257505 ISBN-13 9781408257500
293 Flashcards & Notes
20 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Psychology in Education". The author(s) of the book is/are Anita E Woolfolk Malcolm Hughes Vivienne Walkup. The ISBN of the book is 9781408257500 or 1408257505. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Psychology in Education

  • 1 Teachers, Teaching and Educational Psychology

  • Seven areas of professional knowledge, Expert teachers. L Shulman(1987)
    1. The academic subjects they teach - their content knowledge is deep and interconnected.
    2. General teaching strategies that apply in all subjects.
    3. The curriculum materials and programmes appropriate for their subject and grade level.
    4. Subject- specific knowledge for teaching: special ways of teaching certain pupuils and particular concepts, such as the best ways to explain negative numbers to lower-ability pupils
    5. The characteristics and cultural backgrounds of learners
    6. The settings in which pupils learn- pairs, small groups, teams, classes, schools, and the community/
    7. The goals and purpose of teaching.
  • Ethnography
    A descriptive approach to research that focuses on life within a group and tries to understand the meaning of events to the peope involved
  • Experimentation
    Researchmethod in which variables are manipulated and the effects recorded
  • Single-subject experimental studies
    Systemetic interventions to study effects with one person, often by applying and then withdrawing a treatment
  • Microgenetic studies
    Detailed observation and analysis of changes in a cognitive process as the process unfuolds over a several-day or week period of time
  • Action research
    Systemetic overseration or tests of methods conducted by teachers or schools to improve teaching an d learning for their learners
  • Principle
    Established relationship between factors
  • 2 Cognitive Development and Language

  • Neurons
    Nerve celss that store and transfer information
  • 2.2 A Definition of Development

  • Development (physical, personal, social, cognitive)
    Orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to death

    General priciples:
    1. People develop at different rates
    2. Development is realively orderly.
    3. Development takes place gradually
  • Maturation
    Genetically programmed, naturally occuring changes over time
  • Synapses
    The tiny space between neurons- chemical messages are sent across these gaps
  • Plasticity
    The brain's tendency to remain somewhat adaptable or flexible
  • Myelination
    The process by which neural fibres are coated with a fatty sheath called myelin which makes message transfers more efficient
  • Lateralisation
    The specialisation of the tow hemispheres (sides) of the brain cortex
  • 2.3 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Organisation
    Ongoing process of arranign inforamtion and experience into mental systems or categories
  • Adaptation
    Adjustment to the environment
  • Schemes
    Mental systems or categories of perception and experience
  • Assimilation
    Fitting new information into existing schemes
  • Accomodation
    Altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
  • Equilibration
    Search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from environment
  • Disequilibrium
    In Piaget's theory, the 'out-of-balance' state that occurs when a person realises that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation
  • Sensorimotor
    Involving the senses and motor activity
  • Object permanence
    The understanding that objects have a separate, permanent existence
  • Goal-directed actions
    Deliberate actions towards a goal
  • Operations
    Actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions
  • Reversible thinking
    Thinking backwards, from the end to the beginning
  • Conversation
    Principle that some characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance
  • Decentring
    Focusing on more than one aspect at a time
  • Egocentric
    Assuming that others experience the world the way that you do
  • Collective monologue
    Form of speech in which children in a group talk but do not really interact or communicate
  •  Concrete operations
    Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations
  • Identity
    Principle that a person or object remains the same over time
  • Compensation
    The principle that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another
  • Reversibility
    A characteristic of Piagetian logical operations - the ability to think through a seriesof steps, then mentally reverse the steps and return to the stating point; also called reversible thinking
  • Classification
    Grouping objects into categories
  • Seriation
     Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight or volume
  • Formal operations
    Mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
  • Hypothetico-deductive  reasoning
    A formal-operations problem-solving strategy in which an individual begins by identifying all the factors that might affect a problem and then deduces and systematically evaluates specific solutions
  • Adolescent egocentrism
    Assumption that everyone else shares one's thoughts, feelings and concerns
  • Neo-Piagetian theories
    More recent theories that integrate findings about attention, memory and strategy use with Piaget's insights about children's thinking and the construction of knowledge
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Metalinguistic awareness
Understanding about one's own use of language
The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture
Assisted learning
Providing strategic help in the initial stages of learning, gradually diminishing as learners gain independence
Support for learning and problem solving. The support could be clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example or anything else that allows the individual to grow in independence as a learner
Zone of proximal development
Phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
Private speech
Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action, Eventually, these verbalizations are internalised as silent inner speech
Cultural tools
The real tools (computers, scales, rulers etc.) and symbol systems (numbers, language, graphs) that allow people in a society to communicate, think, solve problems and create knowledge
Co-constructed process
A social process in which people interact and negotiate (usually verbally) to create an understanding or to solve a problem. The final product is shaped by all participants.
Sociocultural theory
Emphasises rol in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society. Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking and behaving) through these interactions
Neo-Piagetian theories
More recent theories that integrate findings about attention, memory and strategy use with Piaget's insights about children's thinking and the construction of knowledge