Summary Psychology Semester 2

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Summary - Psychology Semester 2

  • 1 Social Psychology

  • What is the attribution theory?
    Attribution theory: tendency to explain someone else’s behaviour by using either:
    1. Situational Factors 
    2. Personality factors 
  • What type of attribution do you make with personality factors?
    Dispositional attribution
  • What type of attribution do you make with situational factors?
    Situational attribution
  • What is Fundamental Attribution Error?
    It is the tendency for observers when analysing another person's behaviour to
    1. Underestimate the impact of the situation 
    2. Overestimate the impact of personal disposition 

    We are more likely to use a dispositional attribution (personality)  and less likely to use a situational attribution to explain someone's behaviour
  • How to best explain someone's behaviour?
    Observe them in multiple situations
  • When are attitudes likely to affect behaviour?
    When external influences are minimal and when attitude is stable
  • What can attitude affect?
    Actions
  • What can change attitude?
    Persuasion
  • What are the 2 routes to persuasion?
    Central Route and Peripheral Route
  • What is central route?
    Persuasion that uses evidence and arguments that triggers careful thinking
  • What is peripheral route?
    Use attention grabbing techniques to try and make you make an emotional judgement really quickly
  • Can actions affect our attitudes?
    Yes
  • What are the two types of theories to show that actions can affect our attitudes?
    Foot-in-the-door phenomenon and role playing
  • What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
    It involves compliance with a large request after having agreed to a small request
  • Who is role playing by?
    Zimbardo
  • What is role playing theory?
    If we put people in certain roles and we get them to live that role for a certain period of time, that will affect their attitude eventually b/c there are certain behaviours attached to roles 
  • What is cognitive dissonance?
    It refers to the mental conflict that occurs when a person’s behaviours and beliefs do not align or when a person holds two beliefs that contradict one another 
  • Who is cognitive dissonance by?
    Festinger
  • What did Festinger propose?
    People experience discomfort when they hold conflicting beliefs OR when actions contradict beliefs. They will try to reduce the dissonance to relieve the discomfort (anxious, guilty, ashamed).
  • What is the drive to resolve dissonance called?
    Principle of cognitive consistency
  • How to reduce cognitive dissonance?
    Change belief, change action/behaviour, change perception of action
  • What is conformity?
    Adjusting one’s behaviour/thinking to match with a group’s standard 
    We tend to follow what the majority of people are doing/thinking
  • Who is conformity by?
    Asch
  • What did Asch's experiment show?
    People have a natural need to be part of a group, so they will conform to the norms of groups so they will be accepted and not rejected
  • Why do people conform?
    Because of normative social influence and informational social influence
  • What is normative social influence?
    Conform because of our desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. The price we pay for being different may be severe (ridicules, left out etc.) - we need to belong 
  • What is informational social influence?
     The desire to be right – when we conform because we are unsure of the situation or lack knowledge, so we look to others who we believe may have more information than us.
  • Is conformity good or bad?
    Depends on culture. 
    Individualist cultures value individualism, which decreases conformity.
    Communist cultures value honouring group standards which increases conformity.
  • What good does obedience have for the government?
    Helps maintain order and helps society to function
  • Who is obedience by?
    Milgram
  • When was obedience the highest in Milgram's experiment?
    Person giving orders was in close proximity and was perceived as a legitimate authority figure
    The authority figure was supported by a powerful or prestigious institution
    Victim (learner) was depersonalised or at a distance (in another room)
    There were no role models for defiance
  • What did Milgram's experiment show?
    Good people can turn bad. It doesn't take much for a good person to become a bad person
  • What are the 5 mini-theories of group behaviour?
    Social facilitation, social loafing, deindividuation, group polarization, group think
  • What is social facilitation?
    Presence of others can arouse you. It can either improve your performance on easy/well-learned tasks OR decrease your performance on difficult tasks 
  • Why does social facilitation occur?
    When others observe us, we become aroused
  • What is social loafing?
    A tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually accountable 
  • What happens when you are part of a group?
    Feel less accountable and thus worry less about what others think
    View individual contributions as dispensable (if I don’t do it, someone else will do it)
    Overestimate your own contributions, neglecting other’s actions (You think you contributed a lot, but not actually LOL)
    Unless you are highly motivated and strongly identify with the group, people may free ride on other’s efforts 
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Why are there gender differences with stress?
Due to oxytoxin
Gender differences with stress?
Men tend to respond to stress by withdrawing socially while women tend to respond to stress by nurturing and banding together
What are some of the body's other reactions to stress? (not telomeres)
Withdraw, paralysed by fear and tend and befriend
What is the body's reaction to stress? (Telomeres)
To those who suffer severe stress, telomeres were shortened. Those who were the most stressed had cells that looked a decade older than their chronological age. Severe stress can age people
What is Selye's basic point?
Although the human body can cope well with temporary stress, prolonged stress can damage it
What is exhaustion stage?
When exhausted, you are vulnerable to illness or in extreme cases, collapses and death
What is resistance stage?
Temperature, blood pressure and respiration remain high. Adrenal glands pump hormones into the bloodstream. You are fully engaged, summoning all the resources to meet the challenges. Your body is attempting to cope with the stressor
What is alarm reaction?
You feel the faintness of a shock, due to sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system
What is General Adaptation Syndrome? Who is it by?
Hans Selye. Selye defined the body's adaptive responses to stress as 3 stages:
1. Alarm 
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion
What is Canon's fight and flight?
When confronted with a stressor, the sympathetic nervous system is activated. By fighting or fleeing, increases our chances of survival