Summary Psychology Semester 2

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Summary - Psychology Semester 2

  • 1 Social Psychology

  • What is the attribution theory?
    Attribution theory: tendency to explain someone else’s behaviour by using either:
    1. Situational Factors 
    2. Personality factors 
  • What type of attribution do you make with personality factors?
    Dispositional attribution
  • What type of attribution do you make with situational factors?
    Situational attribution
  • What is Fundamental Attribution Error?
    It is the tendency for observers when analysing another person's behaviour to
    1. Underestimate the impact of the situation 
    2. Overestimate the impact of personal disposition 

    We are more likely to use a dispositional attribution (personality)  and less likely to use a situational attribution to explain someone's behaviour
  • How to best explain someone's behaviour?
    Observe them in multiple situations
  • When are attitudes likely to affect behaviour?
    When external influences are minimal and when attitude is stable
  • What can attitude affect?
    Actions
  • What can change attitude?
    Persuasion
  • What are the 2 routes to persuasion?
    Central Route and Peripheral Route
  • What is central route?
    Persuasion that uses evidence and arguments that triggers careful thinking
  • What is peripheral route?
    Use attention grabbing techniques to try and make you make an emotional judgement really quickly
  • Can actions affect our attitudes?
    Yes
  • What are the two types of theories to show that actions can affect our attitudes?
    Foot-in-the-door phenomenon and role playing
  • What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
    It involves compliance with a large request after having agreed to a small request
  • Who is role playing by?
    Zimbardo
  • What is role playing theory?
    If we put people in certain roles and we get them to live that role for a certain period of time, that will affect their attitude eventually b/c there are certain behaviours attached to roles 
  • What is cognitive dissonance?
    It refers to the mental conflict that occurs when a person’s behaviours and beliefs do not align or when a person holds two beliefs that contradict one another 
  • Who is cognitive dissonance by?
    Festinger
  • What did Festinger propose?
    People experience discomfort when they hold conflicting beliefs OR when actions contradict beliefs. They will try to reduce the dissonance to relieve the discomfort (anxious, guilty, ashamed).
  • What is the drive to resolve dissonance called?
    Principle of cognitive consistency
  • How to reduce cognitive dissonance?
    Change belief, change action/behaviour, change perception of action
  • What is conformity?
    Adjusting one’s behaviour/thinking to match with a group’s standard 
    We tend to follow what the majority of people are doing/thinking
  • Who is conformity by?
    Asch
  • What did Asch's experiment show?
    People have a natural need to be part of a group, so they will conform to the norms of groups so they will be accepted and not rejected
  • Why do people conform?
    Because of normative social influence and informational social influence
  • What is normative social influence?
    Conform because of our desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. The price we pay for being different may be severe (ridicules, left out etc.) - we need to belong 
  • What is informational social influence?
     The desire to be right – when we conform because we are unsure of the situation or lack knowledge, so we look to others who we believe may have more information than us.
  • Is conformity good or bad?
    Depends on culture. 
    Individualist cultures value individualism, which decreases conformity.
    Communist cultures value honouring group standards which increases conformity.
  • What good does obedience have for the government?
    Helps maintain order and helps society to function
  • Who is obedience by?
    Milgram
  • When was obedience the highest in Milgram's experiment?
    Person giving orders was in close proximity and was perceived as a legitimate authority figure
    The authority figure was supported by a powerful or prestigious institution
    Victim (learner) was depersonalised or at a distance (in another room)
    There were no role models for defiance
  • What did Milgram's experiment show?
    Good people can turn bad. It doesn't take much for a good person to become a bad person
  • What are the 5 mini-theories of group behaviour?
    Social facilitation, social loafing, deindividualization, group polarization, group think
  • What is social facilitation?
    Presence of others can arouse you. It can either improve your performance on easy/well-learned tasks OR decrease your performance on difficult tasks 
  • Why does social facilitation occur?
    When others observe us, we become aroused
  • What is social loafing?
    A tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually accountable 
  • What happens when you are part of a group?
    Feel less accountable and thus worry less about what others think
    View individual contributions as dispensable (if I don’t do it, someone else will do it)
    Overestimate your own contributions, neglecting other’s actions (You think you contributed a lot, but not actually LOL)
    Unless you are highly motivated and strongly identify with the group, people may free ride on other’s efforts 
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How do facial expressions influence feelings? Who said this?
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Personalities frequently associated with eating disorders
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What is bulimia nervosa?
Binge eating episode is followed by inappropriate weight loss promoting behaviours
What is anorexia nervosa?
Person usually maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight
Types of eating disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge eating disorder
Causes of schizophrenia
Brain chemistry - dopamine overactivity 
Abnormal brain activity and anatomy - problems with several brain regions, low frontal lobe activity, rapid brain tissue loss
Genetic factors - 1 in 100 odds of being diagnosed with schizophrenia becomes 1 in 10 if family member is diagnosed
Overview of acute schizophrenia
Also called reactive schizophrenia. Can begin at any age, frequently occurs in response to a traumatic event. Positive symptoms usually occurs and recovery is likely
Overview of chronic schizophrenia
Also called process schizophrenia. Symptoms usually occur in late teens to early adulthood. Recovery is doubtful and negative symptoms often occurs
Types of schizophrenia
Chronic and Acute