Summary Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour

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ISBN-10 0077136403 ISBN-13 9780077136406
643 Flashcards & Notes
131 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour". The author(s) of the book is/are Nigel Holt. The ISBN of the book is 9780077136406 or 0077136403. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour

  • 1 The science of psychology

  • Psychology
    The scientific study of behaviour and the mind
  • Behaviour: actions and responses that we can observe.
    Mind: internal states and processes, cannot be seen directly.
  • Critical thinking: taking an active role in understanding the world around you. Imporant to reflect on what your information means and how it fits in your experiences and implications. Evaluating the validity of a fact.
  • 1.1 The nature of psychology

  • What is psychology's focus?
    Behaviour and mind
  • In science and daily life, what does critical thinking involve, and why is it important?
    Critical thinking involves taking an active role in understanding the world around you, rather than merely receiving information. It is important to reflect on what that information means, how it fits in with your experiences, and its implications for your life and society. It also means evaluating the validity of somthing presented to you as fact.
  • 1.1.1 Social constructivism

  • Constructivism: not believing what you hear/read and seeing it in a different perspective.
  • 1.1.2 Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science

  • Basic research
    Reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
  • Applied research
    Is designed to solve specific, practical problems
  • Voorbeeldstudies: Robber's Cave en de Jigsaw Classroom.
  • How do basic and applied research differ?
    Basic: voor het verkrijgen van kennis. Applied: om met die kennis een probleem op te lossen.
  • Co-operative learning programmes: basic research about hostility between groups and when they work together.
  • 1.1.3 The goals of psychology

  • Identify the major goals of psychology
    1. Describe behaviour
    2. Understand the causes of behaviour
    3. Predict behaviour under certain conditions
    4. Influence behaviour
    5. Apply knowledge to enhance human welfare
  • 1.1.4 psychology's broad scope: a levels-of-analysis framework

  • What are the levels of analysis?
    Biological level, psychological level, environmental level
  • Mind-body interactions: the relations between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems. (Psychological and biological levels of analysis)
  • Nature-nurture: is our behaviour primarily shaped by nature (biological) or by nurture (environment and learning history). Nature and nurture interact, (biological capacities <-> experiences).
  • 1.2 Perspectives on behaviour

  • Perspectives: different ways of viewing people/ things. Matter in science.
  • 1.2.1 Psychology's roots

  • The mind-body problem
    Is the mind a spitirual entity separate from the body, or is it a part of the body's activities?
  • Mind-body dualism

    The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body (Descartes)

  • Monism
    Holds that mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity (Hobbes&Locke)
  • Empiricism
    Held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically- that is, trough the senses
  • Psychophysiscs: the study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli.
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Ook dit verschilt per cultuur

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In situaties die we in de hand hebben werkt de probleem gefocusde aanpak het beste
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