Summary Psychopathology - Research, Assessment and Treatment in Clinical Psychology - Custom for Groningen University

ISBN-10 1118504933 ISBN-13 9781118504932
335 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Psychopathology - Research, Assessment and Treatment in Clinical Psychology - Custom for Groningen University". The author(s) of the book is/are Davey Graham C L Davey. The ISBN of the book is 9781118504932 or 1118504933. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Psychopathology - Research, Assessment and Treatment in Clinical Psychology - Custom for Groningen University

  • 1 Psychopathology: Concepts and Classification

  • Psychopathology
    The study of deviations from normal or everyday psychological functioning
  • Clinical psychology
    The branch of psychology responsible for understanding and treating psychopathology
  • Medical model
    An explanation of psychopathology in terms of underlying biological or medical causes
  • Psychological models
    Models which view psychopathology as caused primarily by psychological rather than biological processes.
  • Demonology
    The belief that those exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology are possessed by bad spirits. Individuas' behavior has changed in such a way that their personality appears to have been taken over and replaced by the persona of someone or something else.
  • General Paresis
    A brain disease occuring as a late consequence of syphillis, characterized by dementia, progressive muscular weakness and paralysis.
  • Somatogenic hypothesis
    The hypothesis that the causes or explanations of psychological problems can be found in physical or biological impairments.
  • Depression
    A mood disorder involving emotional, motivational, behavioural, physical and cognitive symptoms.
  • Sigmund Freud
    An Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of Psychology
  • Psychoanalysis
    An influential psychological model of psychopathology based on the theoretical works of Sigmund Freud
  • Id
    In psychoanalysis the concept used to describe innate instinctual needs- especially sexual needs
  • Ego 
    In psychoanalysis, a rational part of the psyche that attemps to control the impulses id.
  • Ego defence mechanisms
    Means by which the ego attempts to control unacceptable id impulses and reduce anxiety that id impulses may arouse.
  • Superego
    In psychoanalysis, a development from both the id and ego which represents our attempts to integrate 'values' that we learn from our parents or society.
  • Defense mechanisms
    In psychoanalysis, the meansby which individuals attempt to control conflict between the id, ego and superego and also reduce stress and conflict from external events.
  • Stages of development
    Progressive periods of development from infancy to maturity
  • Oral stage
    According to Freud, the first 18 months of life based on the child's need for food from the mother. If the mother fails to satisfy these oral needs, the child may become fixated at this stage and in later life display 'oral stage characteristics' such as extreme dependence on others.
  • Behavioural model
    An influential psychological model of psychopathology based on explaining behaviour.
  • Learning theory
    The body of knowledge encompassing principles of classical and operant conditioning (and which is frequently applied to explaining and treating psychopathology)
  • Classical conditioning
    The learning of an association between two stimuli, the first of which is the conditioned stimulus (CS) predicts the occurence of the second stimulus (UCS)
  • Operant conditioning
    The learning of a specific behaviour of response because that behaviour has specific consequences
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy
    An intervention for changing both thoughts and behaviour. CBT represents an umbrella term for many different therapies that share the common aim of changing both cognitions and behaviour.
  • Human-existential approach
    Approach that aims to resolve psychological problems through insight, personal development and self-actualization
  • Client-centered therapy
    An approach to psychopathology stressing the goodness of human nature, assuming that if individuals are unrestricted by fears and conflicts, they will develop into well-adjusted, happy individuals.
  • Empathy
    An ability to understand and experience a client's own feelings and personal meanings, and a willingness to demonstrate unconditional positive regard for the client.
  • Unconditional positive regard
    Valuing clients for who they are without judging them.
  • Abnormal psychology
    An alternative definition of psychopathology, albeit with negative connotations in regard to being 'not normal'
  • Service user groups
    Groups of individuals who are end users of the mental health services provided by, for example, government agencies such as the NHS
  • Mad Pride
    An UK organization dedicated to changing the way in which society views people with mental health problems.
  • Reformist delusions: A belief that an improvement in social conditions can be achieved only through the revision of people's attitudes, in accordance with the individual's own ideas for the transformation of reality
    Litigation mania: a conviction, which does not have any basis in fact, that the individual's own rights as a human are being violated and flouted.
  • Ataque de nervios
    A form of panic disorder found in Latinos from the Carribean.
  • Seiziman
    A state of psychological paraysis found in the Haitian community
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Behavioral rehearsal
A coping strategy that involves either the actual or imagined rehearsal of adaptive coping responses that need to be deployed when a worry trigger is encountered.
Reciprocal inhibition
A principal of behavioral therapy in which an emotional response is eliminated is not just by extinguishing the relationship between the emotion-inducing cue and the threatening consequence, but also by attaching a response to the emotion-inducing cue which is incompatiblewith anxiety. (eg relaxation)
A technique used in psychoanalysis where the analyst is used as a target for emotional responses: clients behave towards the analyst if they would have behaved towards an important person in their lives.
Systematic Desensitization
In the exposure therapy based on the need to expose clients to the events and situations that evoke their distress and anxiety in a graduated and progressive way.
Counter conditioning
A behavior therapy technique designed to use conditioning techniques to establish a response that is antagonistic to the psychopathology.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition
A group of antidepressant drugs that have their effects by increasing levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain
Rational emotive therapy
A cognitive technique developed by Albert Ellis (1962) which addresses how people construe themselves, their life and the world.
A form of desentisization for the treatment of phobias and related disorders in which the patient is repeatedly exposed to high distress stimuli.
Tricyclic antidepressants
Antidepressant drugs developed in the 1960s which have their effect by increasing their amount of norepinephrine and serotonin available for synaptic transmission
The classical conditioning principle which assumes emotional problems can be 'unlearned'by disrupting the association between the anxiety-provoking cues or situations and the threat or traumatic outcomes with which they have become associated.