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Summary - Questions

  • 1 Classical Conditioning

  • Definition of Learning 
    Learning refers to any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience. Learning is about predicting the future from past experience and using these predictions to guide behavior in the present moment
  • What are all classical conditioning based on?
    Reflex responses
  • Who is classical conditioning by?
  • What kind of learning is classical conditioning a part of?
    Associative learning
  • Classical Conditioning Formula
    UCS - UCR 
    NS + UCS - UCR 
    CS - CR
  • What does the neutral stimulus become at the end of the experiment?
    Conditioned stimulus
  • What is stimulus discrimination?
    When the organism demonstrates the conditioned response only to the conditioned stimulus and not any other stimulus 
  • What is stimulus generalization?
    When an organism demonstrates the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
  • What is extinction?

    Conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus
  • During extinction, is the response eliminated?
    No, it is weakened but not eliminated
  • What is spontaneous recovery?

    Re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. For example, If days later the dog once more hears the bell, it is likely to salivate again.
  • What is rapid Reacquisition? Example
    The dog would re-learn the conditioned response more quickly than it did the first time after extinction
  • 2 Operant Conditioning

  • Who is operant conditioning by?
  • What type of learning is operant conditioning?
    Associative learning
  • What did Skinner believe in?
    Behaviour is shaped by the learner’s history of experiencing rewards and punishments for their actions 
  • What is reinforcement?
    A behaviour is reinforced (strengthened) whenever a desirable outcome is the consequence
  • What is positive reinforcement?
    The process whereby the presentation of a stimulus (a reward or pay-off) after behaviour makes the behaviour more likely to occur again
  • What is negative reinforcement?
    Elimination of an aversive consequence
  • What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?
    The behaviour is continuously reinforced every single time 
  • What is partial reinforcement?
    Behaviour is usually reinforced on a partial “schedule”
  • Which one leads to more persistent learning? (Continuous vs partial reinforcement)
    Partial reinforcement leads to more persistent learning than continuous reinforcement
  • In variable ratio schedules, are rewards predictable?
  • When does extinction of reinforced behaviour happen?
    Extinction occurs when reinforcement is withheld 
  • What is shaping?
    Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired response
  • What is punishment?
    Behaviour is punished (weakened) whenever the learner experiences an undesirable consequence for that behaviour
  • What is positive punishment?
    Exposure to an aversive event following a behaviour reduces the likelihood of the operant recurring
  • What is negative punishment?
    Not obtaining a reinforcer as a consequence of behaviour
  • When is punishment effective?
    1. Contingency - The relationship between the behaviour and punisher must be clear 
    2. Contiguity – The punisher must follow the behaviour swiftly (Immediately/soon after the behaviour)  
    3. Consistency – The punisher needs to occur for every occurrence of the behaviour 
  • Drawbacks of punishment

    1. Rarely works for long term behaviour change
    2. It tends to only suppress behaviour
    3. It does not teach a more desirable behaviour
    4. If the threat of punishment is removed, the behaviour returns
    5. Produces negative feelings, which do not promote new learning
    6. Harsh punishment may teach the recipient to use such behaviour towards others (social learning)
  • Alternatives to punishment
    1. Stop reinforcing the problem behaviour (extinction) 
    2. Reinforce an alternative behaviour that is both constructive and incompatible with the undesirable behaviour 
    3. Reinforce the non-occurrence of the undesirable behaviour 
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How the cochlea implant work?
The microphone in the speech processor converts sound waves into electrical impulses and it gets sent into the transmitter. Transmitter sends it to the receiver and then to the stimulator. Cochlea eventually gets the electrical impulse from the stimulator and converts it into neural impulses to be sent to the brain.
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
Hair cells do not produce an electrical process that gets sent to the brain
What are cochlea implants?
A surgical procedure that attempts to restore some degree of hearing in individuals who have "nerve deafness" or sensorineural hearing loss
Is the primary separated into sounds of varying frequency?
What is tonotypical mapping?
Mapping sounds with a higher frequency vs sounds of a lower frequency. When sounds with varying frequencies reach the ear, they will stimulate different parts of the basilar membrane
Does a low frequency have a longer or shorter wavelength? High or low pitch?
Longer wavelength. Lower pitch
Does a high frequency have a longer or shorter wavelength? High or low pitch?
Shorter wavelength and high pitch
Is low pressure more compressed or less compressed?
Less compressed
Is high pressure more compressed or less compressed?
More compressed
Example: Cat meowHow does sound travel through air?
Cat's meow will disturb air molecules in the air and create high pressure and low pressure