Summary Research Methods For Business A Skill Building Approach

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ISBN-10 1119165555 ISBN-13 9781119165552
668 Flashcards & Notes
12 Students
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Summary 1:

  • Research Methods For Business A Skill Building Approach
  • Uma Sekaran Roger J Bougie
  • 9781119165552 or 1119165555
  • 2016

Summary - Research Methods For Business A Skill Building Approach

  • 1 Introduction to research

  • Research
    The process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. Helps to make decisions.
  • Business research
    An organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, inquiry or investigation into a specific problem.
  • Steps of business research
    1. Know where the problem areas exist in the organization, and to identify as clearly and specifically as possible the problems that need to be studied and resolved.
    2. Gather information
    3. Analyze the data
    4. Develop an explanation for the problem
    5. Solve the problem by taking the necessary corrective measures
  • Primary data
    Gathered first hand.
  • Secondary data
    Data already available
  • Quantitative data
    In the form of numbers as generally gathered through structured questions.
  • Qualitative data
    Data in the form of words.
  • 2 Purposes of research
    1. Applied research
    2. Basic/Fundamental/Pure research
  • Applied research
    To solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution. Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in an organization.
  • Basic/Fundamental/Pure research
    To generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in an organization can be solved. Research done chiefly to make a contribution to existing knowledge.
  • Being knowledgeable about research and research methods help professional managers to?
    1. Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work setting.
    2. Know how to discriminate good from bad research.
    3. Appreciate and be constantly aware of the multiple influences and multiple effects of factors impinging on a situation.
    4. Take calculated risks in decision making, knowing full well the probabilities associated with the different possible outcomes. 
    5. Prevent possible vested interests from exercising their influence in a situation.    
    6. Relate to hired researchers and consultants moer effectively.
    7. Combine experience with scientific knowledge while making decisions.
  • While hiring researchers or consultants, the manager should make sure that?
    1. The roles and expectations of both parties are made explicit.
    2. Relevant philosophies and value systems of the organization are clearly stated and constraints, if any, are communicated. 
    3. A good rapport is established with the researchers, and between the researchers and employees in the organization, enabling the full cooperation of the latter.
  • Advantages of internal consultants/researchers?
    1. The internal team stands a better chance of being readily accepted by the employees in the subunit of the organization where research needs to be done. 
    2. The team requires much less time to understand the structure, the philosophy and climate, and the functioning and work systems of the organization.
    3. They are available to implement their recommendations after the research findings have been accepted. They are also available to evaluate the effectiveness of the changes, and to consider further changes if and when necessary.
    4. The internal team might cost considerably less than an external team for the department enlisting help in problem solving, because they will need less time to understand the system due to their continuous involvement with various units of the organization.
  • Disadvantages of internal consultants/researchers?
    1. In view of their long tenure as internal consultants, the internal team may quite possibly fall into a stereotyped way of looking at the organization and its problems.
    2. There is scope for certain powerful coalitions in the organization to influence the internal team to conceal, distort, or misrepresent certain facts. 
    3. There is also a possibility that even the most highly qualified internal research teams are not perceived as "experts" by the staff and management, and hence their recommendations may not get the consideration and attention they deserve. 
    4. Certain organizational biases of the internal research team might, in some instances, make the findings less objective and consequently less scientific.
  • Advantages of external consultants/researchers?
    1. The external team can draw on a wealth of experience from having worked with different types of organizations that have had the same or similar types of problems. This wide range of experience enables them to think both divergently and convergently rather than hurry to an instant solution on the basis of the apparent facts in the situation. They are able to ponder over several alternative ways of looking at the problem because of their extensive problem-solving experience in various other organizational setups. 
    2. The external teams, especially those from established research and consulting firms, might have more knowledge of current sophisticated problem-solving models through their periodic training programs, which the teams within the organization may not have access to.
  • Disadvantages of external consultants/researchers?
    1. Cost of hiring an external research team is usually high and is the main deterrent, unless the problems are critical. 
    2. In addition to the considerable time the external team takes to understand the organization being researched, they seldom a warm welcome, nor are readily accepted by employees. Soliciting employees' help and enlisting their cooperation in the study is a little more difficult and time-consuming for external researchers than for internal teams.
    3. The external team also charges additional fees for their assistance in the implementation and evaluation phases.
  • When should you choose for external consultants/researchers?
    1. Complex problem
    2. Vested interests
    3. Existence of the organization is at stake
  • When should you choose for internal consultants/researchers?
    1. Fairly simple problem
    2. Time is for the essence in solving moderately complex problems
    3. System-wide need to establish procedures and policies of a fairly routine nature.
  • Ethics for research teams
    A code of conduct or expected societal norms of behavior while conducting research.
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Summary 2:

  • Research methods for business: a skill-building approach
  • U Sekaran
  • 9781119942252 or 111994225X
  • 2013

Summary - Research methods for business: a skill-building approach

  • 1 introduction to business

  • What is business reasearch?
    an organized and systematic inquiry or investigation to a SPECIFIC problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it 
  • What is basic research?
    generates a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved
  • What is applied research?
    solves a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution
  • What is deductive reasoning?
    application of a general theory to a specific case --> hypothesis testing
  • What is inductive reasoning?
    a process where we OBSERVE specific phenomena and at this basis arrive at general conclusions
  • What is positivism?
    scientific research is the way to get to the truth. positivists are concerned with the rigor and replicability of their research, the reliability of observations and the generalizability of findings. they use DEDUCTIVE reasoning. 
  • What is construcitonism?
    the world as we know it is fundamentally mental. research methods are qualitative in nature.
  • What is pragmatism?
    Do not take a particular position on what makes good research.
  • Research provides the necessary information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.
  • 2 elements of research design

  • What is a research design?
    a blueprint for the collection, measurements, and analysis of data, based ont he research questions of the study. 
  • What is an exploratory study?
    undertaken when NOT MUCH is known about the situation at hand,or no information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the past 
  • What is a descriptive study?
    undertaken in order to be able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation
  • What is a causal study?
    delineating one or more factors that are causing a certain effect. a question with why, the effect or causes if always a causal question. 
  • What is a correlation study?
    a correlation study is conducted in natural environment with minimal interference by the researcher with the normal flow of events. 
  • noncontrived setting
    the natural environment where events proceeds normally (correlation studies)
  • contrived setting
    artificial environment (causal studies)
  • What are fields studies? 
    Correlation studies done in non contrived settings 
  • What are field experiments?
    studies conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships using the same natural environment in which the subjects under study (consumers, employees etc.) normally function
  • What are lab experiments?
    similar subject are chosen carefully to respond to certain manipulated stimuli. 
  • Research strategy: experiments
    often used to establish CAUSAL relationships. Usually associated with DEDUCTIVE research
  • Research strategy: survey research
    Very popular in business research because it allows the researcher to collect quantitative and qualitative data on many types of research questions. 
    USED IN EXPLORITORY, DESCRIPTIVE AND CAUSAL RESEARCH. 
  • Research strategy: observation
    Going into natural settings of people, watching what they do, and describing this.
  • Research strategy: case studies
    collecting information about a specific object, event or activity. Both quantitative and qualitative data. Hypotheses can be developed. 
  • Research strategy: grounded theory
    systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived theory from the data. 
  • Research strategy: action research
    begin with a problem that is already identified, gather relevant dat and solve the problem.
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Om een een causaal verband vast te stellen, moeten aan alle vier van onderstaande condities voldaan worden:
  1. De onafhankelijke en afhankelijke variabele moeten samenkomen
  2. De onafhankelijke variabele gaat vooraf aan de afhankelijke variabele
  3. Geen andere factor zou een mogelijke verandering in de afhankelijke variabele mogen geven
  4. Een logische verklaring (en theorie)  is nodig over het waarom de onafhankelijke variabele van invloed is op de afhankelijke variabele
Causal study
Dit type onderzoek ligt aan de basis van het wetenschappelijk onderzoek, deze studies onderzoeken in hoeverre een variabele invloed heeft op een andere variabele
Descriptieve studies geven de onderzoeker
  1. Begrijpen van de karakteristieken van een groep in een bepaalde situatie
  2. Een systeem vormen rondom aspecten in een bepaalde situatie
  3. Bieden ideeën voor verder onderzoek
  4. Helpt op bepaalde besluiten te nemen (bijvoorbeeld; openingstijden, communicatie kanalen gebaseerd op klantprofielen enz..)
Wat is het doel van een descriptieve studie?
Descriptieve studies zijn vaak ontworpen om data te verzamelen die een beschrijving geven van karakteristieken van: personen, gebeurtenissen of situaties
Wanneer kiest men voor een exploratory Studie?
Voor een exploratory study wordt gekozen wanneer er over het onderwerp of situatie nog niet veel bekend is.
Vooronderzoek moet gedaan worden om het probleem/situatie te gaan begrijpen en vervolgens kan er besloten worden of verder onderzoek gewenst is.
Welke drie verschillende doeleinden kunnen studies hebben?
  1. Exploratory; verkennend
  2. Descriptive; beschrijvend
  3. Oorzakelijk; Causal
Noem een voorbeeld wanneer het gepast is om iets langdurig en zorgvuldig te onderzoeken?
Bijvoorbeeld wanneer er op basis van de onderzoeksresultaten een besluit wordt genomen over al dan niet investeren van miljoenen in een project
Uit welke 6 elementen bestaat het research design?
  1. Doel van de studie (purpose)
  2. Mate van inmenging van de onderzoeker in het onderzoek
  3. Locatie van de studie
  4. Onderzoeksstrategie
  5. Niveau waarop de data wordt geanalyseerd (individu-Bevolking)
  6. Tijdsduur
Wat is een research design
Een research design is een raamwerk voor: 
het verzamelen, het meten en analyseren van data.

Dit is gebaseerd op de onderzoeksvraag.
Doelstellingen van dit hoofdstuk
  1. Begrijpen welke verschillende aspecten van belang zijn bij het vormgeven van een onderzoek 
  2. In iedere situatie kunnen indiceren welk soort onderzoek nodig is, de vormgeving, de mate van inmenging door de onderzoeker, de grote van te onderzoeken groep, de tijdsduur van een onderzoek.