Summary Research Methods for Business Students

ISBN-10 1292208783 ISBN-13 9781292208787
732 Flashcards & Notes
10 Students
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Summary 1:

  • Research Methods for Business Students
  • M N K Saunders Adrian Thornhill Philip Lewis
  • 9781292208787 or 1292208783
  • 2019

Summary - Research Methods for Business Students

  • 2 Choosing a research topic and developing your research proposal

  • What is important to do before commencing the research process?
    Express your research topic as a clearly defined research question.
  • What will be at the centre of your research project?
    The research question
  • If you use a research approach it is still important to define a clear question at the outset of your project to focus your researc, even if you then refine your research question accordingly.
  • What is the goldilocks test accoring to clough and nutbrown?
    To decide if research questions are ether 'too big', 'too small', 'too hot' or 'just right'
  • In order to clarify a research question, Clough and Nutbrown (2012) talk of the Russion doll principle what is this?
    This means refining a draft research question until it reflects the essence of your research idea without including any unnecessary words or intentions.
  • Prior to discussion with your project tutor you may wish to conduct a brainstorm session with your peers or use the Delphi technique what is this?
    Your research question may flow from you initial examination of the relevant literature.
  • What is a research aim?
    It is a brief statement of the purpose of the research project
  • Of what are your research question and research aim complementary ways of?
    Of sayin what your research is about
  • What are research objectives?
    Objectives are more generally acceptable to the research community as evidence of the researcher's clear sense of purpose and direction
  • Your objectives allow you to operationalise your question what do we mean with that?
    To state the steps you intend to take to answer it
  • How is the term theory used?
    To refer to 'a systematice body of knowledge grounded in empirical evidence which can be used for explanatory or predictive purposes'
  • Whetten identified that theory is composed of four elements what, how, why and a fourth group of who, where and when what is that summarised?
    through the following questions:

    1) what are the concepts or variables that the theory examines? 
    2)how are these concepts or variables related? (key aspect here is causality)
    3)why are these concepts or variables related?   
    4) who does this theory apply to; where does this theory apply; when does this theory apply?
  • What is in Sutton and Staws view theory not?
    References, data, lists of variables, diagrams, hypotheses or predictions
  • Advising you to carry out research in a particular way (variable A) is based on the theory that this will yield effective results (variable B). This is the cause-and-effect relationship refferd to the definition of theory developed earlier and is very much the view of Kelly
  • Why is theory important?
    Each ofus uses theory in our lives and in the jobs that we undertake.
  • What is important with research?
    That it provides us a much greater understanding of the effectiveness of the strategies used within chains
  • Theory published in the literature may inform your proposed researched question in several ways, in what ways?
    It helps you to formulate a research question and to find a purpose of your question
  • Using relevant theory to inform your research question will also sensitive you to the nature and level of importance of the research topic surrounding your question
  • What is important on how theory is developed?
    It also provides a crucial reason for recoginising relevant theory when writing your research question and objectives
  • What is a deductive approach?
    Where you wish to adopt a clear theoretical position that you will test through the collection of data, your research project will be theory driven and using a deductiove approach
  • What is an inductive approach?
    Where you wish to expoler a topic and develop a theoretical explanation as the data are collected and analysed, your research project will be data driven and will be adopting an inductitive approach.
  • Research questions may play a crucial role in encouraging research that is designed to produce theoretical explanations, no matter how limited explanations might be.
  • What ar substantive theories?
    That are restricted to a particular time, research setting, group or population or problem.
  • What is another way to examine the theoretical contributions into business and management?
    Assess its particual usefulness for organisations and those who work in them
  • What is the research proposal?
    Occasionally refferd to as a protocal or outline, is a structured plan of your proposed research project
  • What do you need to do before you can write your research proposal?
    You will need to be aware of available literature and appropriate theory, the research philosophy and approach that you wish to use, your research design including methodological choice, research strategy and time frame, access and ethical issues, sample selection, data collection methods and data analysis techniques
  • What do a well-thought-out and well-written research proposal have the potential to provide you with?
    A clear specification of the what, why, how, when and where of your research project
  • What do we mean with coherence?
    You are likely to benefit from creating a clear specification to guide your research project
  • What do we mean with ethical considerations?
    Part of the approval process for your research proposal may involve it being considered and approved by a research ethics comittee.
    as a professional student you may also need to be aware of and abide by the ethical requirements of your professional institute
  • What do we mean with feasibility?
    Feasibility is a multifaceted criterion that your assessors will be concerned about
  • Your research project offers a valuable way to learn the skills involved in this activity.
  • The title should simply and concisely summarise the research quesion
  • Your reader will be looking for some evidence that this is a topic in which you have sufficient interest to sustain the effort that will be required from you love the period of the research project.
  • What should the background section lead to?
    Logically into a statement of your research question, aim and research objectives
  • The method is designed to answer the question, 'how shall I conduct my research?' the method may be divided into sub-sections in what sections?
    Into sub-sections that deal with research design, participants, techniques and procedures and ethical considerations.
  • By answering what question will you also need to describe the data collection and analysis techniques you intend?
    How will I collect my data? And how will I analyse it and just this to develop theoretical explanations?
  • Many researchers use a Gantt chart to produce a schedule for their research project what is this?
    Develdoped by Henry Gantt in 1917, this provides a simple visual representation of the stages or tasks that make up your research project, the timings to be allocated to each of these and the relationship between them.
  • Resource considerations may be categorised as finance, data access and equipment
    It is surprising how many research proposals have ambitious plans for large-scale date collection with no thought given to how the data will be analysed.
  • It is not necessary to try to impress your proposal reader with an enormous list of references.
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Summary 2:

  • Research methods for business students
  • Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis, Adrian Thornhill
  • 9780273716860 or 0273716867
  • 5th ed.

Summary - Research methods for business students

  • 1 Introduction

  • Ontologie: Zijnsleer, studie naar de aard en de mogelijkheid van de dingen; aard van de werkelijkheid
    Epistemologie: Studie van aard van kennis en de beste manier om kennis over de werkelijkheid te verkrijgen
  • What are methods?
    Techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse data. (questionnaires, interviews etc.)
  • objectivisme: sociale fenomenen als externe feiten die buiten de invloed van sociale actoren liggen

    subjectivisme: mensen zijn sociale actoren die betekenis toekennen aan de werkelijkheid en op die manier sociale fenomenen en sociale categorieen produceren en herzijn
  • What is methodology?
    Refers to a theory of how research should be undertaken.
  • positivisme: de sociale werkelijkheid kan men alleen bestuderen en proberen te verklaren door de methodologie van de natuurwetenschap

    interpretivsme: de sociale werkelijkheid wordt gecreeerd door sociale actoren, onderzoekers kunnen de werkelijkheid van sociale actoren alleen maar leren kennen dmv onderzoek van uitspraken en handelingen van deze actoren, van activiteiten van beteknisgeving
  • In which ways does Walliman argue that many of the everyday uses of the term 'research' aren't actually research?
    - Just collecting facts or information without purpose
    - Reassembling and reordering facts or information without interpretation
    - As an esoteric activity with no or little relevance to everyday life
    - As a term to get your product or idea noticed and respected
  • de methode van onderzoek zijn ondergeschikt aan het paradigma
    de filosofische uitgangspunten voor onderzoek zijn belangrijk voor de consistentie  ervan
  • What is research?
    A process that people undertake in a systematic way in order to find out things, thereby increasing their knowledge.
  • kwalitatief onderzoek werpt licht op:
    minder: causaliteit
  • What is business and management research?
    Undertaking systematic research to find out things about business and management.
  • kwalitatief onderzoek als een naturalistische interpretatieve benadering die zich richt op het begrijpen van betekenissen die mensen toekennen aan fenomenen in hun sociale wereld
  • What 3 features make business and management a distinctive focus for research?
    - Its multifaceted nature: it draws on knowledge from many different areas such as sociology, psychology, etc. 
    - The researched managers and employees are often as highly educated as the ones researching them
    - The research is expected to have some practical consequence and lead to action.
  • uitgangspunten: 
    onderzoeker en sociale werkelijkheid beinvloeden elkaar
    resultaten worden onvermijdelijk beinvloed door perspectief en waardes van onderzoeker, maar
    natuurwetenschappelijke methodes zijn ongeschikt voor sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek vanuit een interpretatief kader.
    de onderzoeker legt zich toe op het exploreren en begrijpen van sociale werkelijkheid dmv perspectieven van de respondenten en van de onderzoeker
  • How can you identify pedantic science?
    It is characterised by a focus on increasing methodological rigour at the expense of results that are relevant. T&M rigour = higher, pr. Relevance = lower
  • doel van het onderzoek:
    - beschrijvend: geven van beeld van personen, gericht op kenmerken van een fenomeen
    - verkennend: wat is er aan de hand, verschijnsel in nieuw licht willen zien
    -verklarend: gericht op verbanden tussen variabelen in kwantitatief onderzoek en interpretaties als oorzaken in kwalitatief onderzoek
    - projecterend: oplossen van problemen in het nu en in de toekomst
  • What characterises popularist science?
    A focus on relevance and usefulness (pr. relevance = higher) while neglecting theoretical and methodological rigour (T&M rigour = lower).  This means that although the findings might be very useful, the research on which it's based is often invalid and unreliable.
  • inductie: op basis van data een theorie vormen, van onderaf onderzoek doen
    deductie: data toetsen aan vooraf gestelde hyphothese, theorie. van bovenaf onderzoek doen
  • What is puerile science?
    Science that lacks both methodological and theoretical rigour (lower) and has little to no practical relevance (lower).
  • onderzoeksbenadering belangrijk voor:
    1:bepalen design
    2:helpt in het maken van methodologische keuzes
    3:de kennis vergroot inzicht in mogelijkheden
  • What characterises pragmatic science?
    The fact that it is both methodologically and theoretically rigorous (higher) and practically relevant (higher).
  • onderzoeksstrategieen:
    - casestudy
  • What is mode 1 knowledge creation?
    Emphasises research in which the questions are set and solved by academic interests, emphasising a fundamental rather than applied nature.
  • Ethiek:
    normen en waarden die ons leiden in keuzes betreffende ons gedrag en onze betrekkingen met anderen

    het voorkomen van schade aan anderen als uitgangspunt van onderzoeksethiek
  • What is mode 2 knowledge creation?
    Emphasises a context of research governed by the world of practice, highlighting the importance of collaboration both with and between practitioners and the need for the production of practical relevant knowledge.
  • deontologie: doel heligt niet de middelen

    teleologie: het doel heiligt de middelen
  • What is mode 0 of knowledge creation?
    Argues knowledge production based on power and patronage, being particularly visible in the close relationships between sponsor and researcher, e.g. pharmaceutical sponsorship of medical research.
  • in elke onderzoeksfase rekening houden met ethiek
  • What is mode 3 of knowledge creation?
    Focuses on an appreciation of the human condition as it is and as it might become and the production of broad and complex societal results.
  • informed consent: je moet participanten eerlijke, betrouwbare informatie geven over alle facetten van het onderzoek zodat ze een vrije keuze hebben over het meedoen aan het onderzoek
  • What is the relevance gap?
    The schism that exists between the knowledge producers and knowledge users, in particular how managers fail to base practices on the best available evidence found by researchers.
  • gedragscode in nederland:
    1: zorgvuldigheid
    4:onpartijdigheid( wetenschappelijk belang)
  • What is evidence-based management?
    Management which derives principles from research evidence and translates them into practices that solve organisational problems.
  • Observeren: systematisch waarnemen,vastleggen, beschrijven, analyseren en interpreteren van fysiek en verbaal gedrag van mensen in een bepaalde context

    goed kijken ruiken voelen etc
    levert verschillende soorten data op
  • What is the problem with evidence-based management according to rousseau?
    It does not translate well to the workplace, since a lot of managers continue to rely on personal experience instead of systematic knowledge.
  • we cannot study the social world without being part of it
  • Is the rigour-relevance gap unbridgeable?
    According to some, yes, since the management researchers and the researched inhabit different worlds and have different research orientations. According to others (including Rousseau and Hodgekins) is is bridgeable, since the gap is more due to difference in style and language and that the researchers can generate knowledge that is both rigorous and socially useful.
  • etnografische observatie:
    - onderzoeker zelf onderzoeksinstrument
    - in natuurlijke, niet gecontroleerde omgeving
     - alleen keuze van locatie is mogelijk, verder niks
  • What is argument for classifying management research as design science and what is an argument against?
    For: Because in design science they focus on solution-oriented research, which is what they aim for in management research as well.
    Against: Management practise is made up of many ambiguous organisational phenomena, and it is impossible to abide to the rule-like explanations offered by design science.
  • aanpak wordt bepaald door:
    doel van onderzoek
    geschiktheid onderzoeker
    etnische aspecten
  • What are the purposes of basic/ fundamental/ pure research?
    - Expand knowledge of processes of business and management and their outcomes
    - Results in universal principles relating to the process and its relationship to outcomes
    - Findings of significance and value to society in general
  • uitvoering observatie: 
    toegang: introductie door poortwachter
    noties over gesprekken
     conversaties met mensen
  • In what context do you find basic research?
    - Undertaken by people based in universities
    - Choice of topic and objectives determined by the researcher
    - Flexible time scales
  • ruimte
    mapping space: indeling ruimte( hierarchie/machtsrelaties)
    mapping movement: hoe/waar beweegt iedereen zich heen( relaties)
    centraal punt in organisaties
  • What are the purposes of applied research?
    - Improve understanding of particular business or management problem
    - Results in solution to problem
    - New knowledge limited to problem
    - Findings of practical relevance and value to managers in organisations
  • notities
    explicitiet zijn
    niet normatief
    probeer cijfers te geven
    schrijf gedetaillerd op wat je ziet
    gelijk die dag nog verwerken
  • In what context do you find applied science?
    - Undertaken by people based in a variety of settings including organisations and universities
    - Objectives negotiated with originator
    - Tight time scales
  • participerende observatie
    scoort hoog op ecologische valaditeit
     bias: altijd JOUW interpretatie
    langdurig onderzoek
    vertificatie door informanten

    reflectie ook belangrijk
  • What is a reflective diary?
    A diary in which you note down all the things that went well during your research, what went wrong and what lessons you learned from that.
  • hawthorne effect: veranderingen in gedrag individu tgv veranderingen van buitenaf
  • What is reflection?
    The process of observing your own research practice and examining the way you do things.
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Symbolic interactionism =
In symbolic interactionism the individual derives a sense of identity from interaction and communication with others. 

Central to this process is the notion that people continually change in the light of the social circumstances in which they find themselves.
Fieldwork =
When the researcher is physically going to the place where intended informants live, work or otherwise socially interact, to conduct observation. This is referred to as going into the field and is known as doing fieldwork.
Naturalistic observation =
Naturalistic observation is conducted in a 'real world' location where the intention is to conduct observation without influencing the setting being observed.
Collaborative observer =
Collaborative observation seeks to overcome potential ethical concerns, data quality issues and epistemological questions associated with the classic approach to observation. 

As a collaborative observer you would not assume a dominant role and those being observed would not be treated as mere informants from whom the researcher gathers data. Instead you would treat them as collaborators and involve them in many aspects of the research process.
Nonparticipant observer =
The nonparticipant observer role as defined by Spradley (2016), in which the researcher does not share any physical or virtual proximity to those whom they observe. 

This role is made possible by technology allowing the researcher not to be present in the place where, or at the time when, the event or activity occurs.
Complete observer =
In the role of complete observer you would not reveal the purpose of your activity to those you were observing, nor take part in the activity or event being observed. 
Like the role of observer-as-participant you would be present at the event in order to observe it, either by being able to sit in, acting as spectator or onlooker, or watching from the margins.
Moderate participation =
In this you take on some of the attributes of being an 'insider' where necessary while maintaining other characteristics of being an 'outsider'. This would allow you to participate in an event or activity to a sufficient level to be able to conduct your role as observer.
Observer-as-participant =
Acting in the role of observer-as-participant will primarily involve you in observing, although your purpose will be known to those whom you are studying.
Participation in this role will only be low level and will mostly be restricted to being present at an event or activity in order to be able to observe it.
Active participant =
In active participant you would enter a research setting as an 'outsider' to observe but with the intention of learning how to participate in it in order to be able to achieve an understanding that is similar to being an 'insider'.
Participant-as-observer =
In the role of participant-as-observer you would both take part and reveal your research purpose. 

You may adopt this role as an 'insider' related to your existing membership of a group or organisation, but unlike the complete participant role decide to reveal your intention to use this setting to conduct observation if you gain the consent of other members to do so. Alternatively, you may join a group or enter an organisation as an employee to become a fully accredited participant while making your research purpose known to those you wish to observe. (e.g. Brannen and Oultram 2012; Plankey-Videla 2012).