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Summary - Research Methods in Psychology Evaluating a World of Information
1 psychology is a way of thinking
what is empiricism or empirical research?research with as basis for conclusions evidence gained from the senses.
what is a theory?a set of statements that describes general principles about how variables relate to one another.
what is a hypothesis?an expected outcome of a study.
what is data?a set of observations.
which components make the emperical cycle?observation - induction - theory - deduction - prediction - testing - results - evaluation - observation.
what is induction?the proces of coming up with a theory behind an observation.
what makes a good theory?- supported by data from other studies
what is the falsifiability of a theory?a theory needs to be able to get rejected.
what is the parsimony of a theory?a theory should not be unnecessarily complex.
what is deduction?the proces of formulating a prediction that follows your theory.
what differs a prediction from a hypothesis?a prediction is a specific event that will occur if your hypothesis is true.
what is operationalizing?determining how you will measure the conceptual variables from the prediction
what is evaluation?the proces of reflecting on your study to come to a new study.
what is a correction meganism 2 examples?a system that checks your research for potential biases or incompletions before publicing it.
- peer review
what are the three basic rules of science?- openness; everybody needs to be able to see how you did it
- thoroughness; go through the whole cycle of empirical research
what are non-scientific everyday sources of knowledge?experience, intuition, authority.
what does a comparison group do?it shows the researcher what would happen both with or without the researched variable.
what are confounds?alternative explanations for an observation.
when does a confound occurs?when there is correlation but no causality
what is a confederate?an actor playing a specific role in a research
what does it mean when research is probabilistic?the findings of the research are not expected to go for all cases at all times.
what is good story bias?people tend to believe good story's or conclusions that feel natural or make sense.
what is availability heuristic?things that pop up to our mind easily tend to guide our thinking.
what is present/present bias?our failure to consider appropriate comparison groups, we forget to seek information that "is't there" and only focus on information that is present.
what is the confirmation bias?only focussing on information that agrees with your hypothesis or believes.
what is the bias blind spot?we often tend to believe that we don't do biases.
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how do we call mathematically averaging the results of all studies on a topic?
how do we call a series of related studies on the same topic, but by different scientists?
a scientific literature.
how do we call reporting research methods beforehand in advance of data collection?
how do we call sharing data with the scientific community so others can collaborate and verify?
how would you call a form of replication in which the researchers add variables, or levels to the variables to test additional questions?
replication plus extension.
how do we call a form of replication where researchers explore the same research question but use different procedures for operationalizing the variables, which are the same as the original study?
a conceptual replication
what is the flaw of direct replication?
- confirms what we already learned, but doesn't test theory in a new context.
- any threats to internal validity would also be copied.
how do you call a form of replication where the researchers try to replicate the study as closely as they can?
how do we call a history threat that only affects the treatment group?
a selection-history threat.
how do we call a type of quasi-experimental design that studies the independent variable both as an repeated measurement variable, and as an independent group variable?
a nonequivalent control group interrupted time-series design.