Summary Risk assessment of food

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Summary - Risk assessment of food

  • 1 Microbiological Risk Assessment

  • What are 3 very important things associated with microbial risks?
    1. You have a mondial market so a product from one country can make people from an other country sick. 
    2. You have to couple the pathogen found in the food to the people who got sick. You need to be sure that this pathogen is the same. Detection and typing, epidemiology
    3. It is important for people work together in order to have a safe product, Control/Management. 
  • What is the big problem in food safety?
    You can not prevent micro-organisms from being in food since then you need to pasteurize everything and this is impossible. 
    So 0 risk does not exist but you are able to reduce the risk.
  • What are the things that are done to improve food safety?
    • More quantitative objectives are given, for instance reduce listeriosis with 50% in the upcomming 5 years. Instead of 1 case per ...
    • Intelligent interventions: you look at the different intervention steps you can do and what the effect will be
    1. Combination various knowledge sources: in order to get the previous 2 things you need to combine a lot of knowledge. 
  • What are the thins that can be done in order to make a food product safer (car example)?
    It is a joint effort of multiple things that will eventually make your food safer.  So it is a sheared responcibility. 
    • technology
    • legislation/rules
    • human behavior 
  • What different sub classes does risk analysis obtain?
    • Risk assessment
    • Risk management
    • Risk communication 
  • What are the things that need to be done in risk assessment?
    • Hazard Identification
    • Hazard Characterisation 
    • Exposure Assessment 
    • Risk Characterisation
  • What is a hazard identification?
    This is about the potential danger, you go over all the things that might be dangerous.
  • What is a hazard characterisation?
    • P(N) + severity
    • Change you get sick consuming a specific dose. 
    • Dose-responce (disease probability/ severity as function of dose) 
  • What is a exposure assessment?
    • N
    • The dose at the moment of consumption 
    • Initial contamination
    • Kinetics
  • What is the Risk Characterization?
    • Probability and severity including variability and uncertainty. 
    • Cobine dose and illness + severity
    • For instance probaibity/severity of 50.000.000 producs getting sick from them (unilever)
  • What is the definition of a hazard by CODEX?
    A biological, chemical or physical agent in food (or condition of food) with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
  • What is the definition of a risk by CODEX?
    • Health effect caused by a hazard in a food and the likelihood of its occurrence 
    • In other words: Risk = Severity x Probability
  • What are the different objective procedures to do hazard identification?
    • You look at the pathogens that are related to the food product
    • You look at the individual ingredients and see what pathogens are associated with them.
    • Also look at the unexpected, and don't include them.
  • What are the rules you have to apply in the hazard identification?
    • Survival rules: pasteurization remove vegetative organisms, spore former's survive 
    • general rules: remove exotic pathogens (if you are talking about a non exotic product)
    • cardinal parameters: remove non growers
    • user expertise.


    WARNING: be awair that some rules might not be applied if there is abuse of temperature or recontamination
  • What is a exposure assessment?
    It takes into count (Re)contamination Kinetics 
    • Growth
    • inactivation
    • contamination
    • process models  
  • What is the main idee of the balance and characteristic numbers in a exposure assessment?
    • What leaves step 1 one enters step 2
    • What happens in step 1 or 2 is eater inactivation or growth of microorganisms 
    • out=(in+external cont.)*inactivation/growth
    • N(out)=(N(in)+r(c))e^kt
  • What is the formula for growth?
    ∑G=log(e^µt)

    µ: growth rate
  • What is the formula for reduction?
    ∑R=log(e^kt)


    k: inactivation kinetics
  • What is the formula for contamination?
    ∑C=log((N(in) + r(c))/N(in))
  • How do you determine the amount of microorganism additional to your initional growth?
    ∆log(N)= ∑G + ∑R + ∑C
  • How do you determine the most important phenomena for your unsafe food product?
    Determine if ∑G, ∑R or ∑C is of most influence in your process. 
  • What do you see in this picture and what can you tell about it?
    This is the probability (and severity) of a disease (p(ill)) 
    And how many organisms you will need to consume for it.

    For S typhi you need less organisms in order to get sick.
    For S pollorum you need more organisms to get sick.

    However these are rough estimations you don't know the exact form and place of these curves
  • What is the difference between variability and uncertainty?
    Variability: “natural” variation: reduce by better control
    Uncertainty: lack of knowledge: reduce by more research
  • What is the Monte Carlo simulation approach?
    This is a risk characterization approach. 
    It is a way of distributions to quantify the uncertainty of your assay.
  • What is the mean of this picture and where is the good and bad scenario?
    The mean: There is a 12% probability is a 10^-12 probability of illness. 
    The left is the good case scenario small chance of people getting sick.
    The right is the worst case scenario, large chance of people getting sick.
  • What is the FSO?
    A target you set at the moment of consumption on the end of the chain. 
    So there can not be more then .... micro organisms at this point.  

    You take into account initial microorganism concentration, the growth, the reduction and contamination.

    Pill(Nt): chance to get sick at this specific moment of consumption   
    n: numer of suvings per consumer in a population
    n*Pill: how big the chanse the consumer gets sick
    P(ill,popu):  how many people get sick in a poplulation.
  • What is the ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods) its concept ?
    H(0) - ∑R + ∑G + ∑C < FSO
  • H(0) - ∑R + ∑G + ∑C < FSO
    What is the responsibility of the industry and what of the government?
    ∑G: Done by exposure assessment and the responsibility of the industry 

    FSO:  Done by hazard characterization and the responsibility of the government
  • What is the FSO concept for the primary product, food industry and the consumer.
    See picture

    Every part of the food chain has its own objectives that they should stay under.
  • How do you reach your FSO?
    You can spread the PO number over the chance so in the end you stay under the FSO number but you do it in a different way. So you distribute the FSO differently?
  • How is there flexibility about the distribution of the PO over different factors?
    See picture
  • How should the consumer reduce the micro-organisms present in a food product?
    The producer can be flexible. 
    Heat for a longer time at a low temperature of for a shorter time at a high temperature.
  • What does a risk manager do?
    He weights policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment, selecting and implementing appropriate control options.
  • What are the 3 different types of risks?
    1. real risk: not forget, since pertinent 
    2. Emerging risks: attention, might be future real risks 
    3. perceived risks: not real risks, you deal with them by comunication. 
  • What is the ADI/TDI , ARfD, ALOP, MTD?
    definitions for the population 

    ADI/TDI: acceptable daily intake, tolerable daily intake (chronic)
    ARfD: acute reference dose  (acute)
    ALOP: appropriate level of protection (# illnesses)
    MTD: maximal toxic dose (no effect level)
  • What is MRL, ALARA, FSO and MC?
    definitions for the product. 

    MRL: Maximal residue level (avoidable)
    ALARA: As low as reasonably achievable (unavoidable)
    FSO: Food safety objective
    MC :microbiological criterion
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