Summary samenvatting BHE

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Summary - samenvatting BHE

  • 1 the science of animal behavior

  • what is the definition of animal behavior?
    any internally coordinated, externally visible pattern of activity that responds to changing external or internal conditions
  • what is internally coordinated and name 3 examples?
    internal information processing such as:
    -endocrine signalling, sensory information processing, action of neurotransmitters
  • what is externally visible activity?
    patterns we can observe and measure for example an animal eating
  • what does an ethogram lists?
    ethogram: a formal description or inventory of an animals behaviour. 
    -behaviours that a particular species exhibits
  • what are frequency, duration, rate and intensity?
    F: how many times.
    D: length of time of a behaviour
    R: frequency of the behaviour per unit time
    I: forcefulness of the behaviour
  • what are the 4 questions of Niko Tinbergen?
    1. what is the mechanism that causes the behaviour?

    2. how does the behaviour develop?
    3. what is the function of the behaviour?
    4. how did the behaviour evolve?
  • what are proximate explanations?
    question 1 and 2 of Tinbergen, they focus on understanding the immediate causes of a behaviour.
    for example studies of genetics/sensory systems/neurons/hormones/learning
  • what are ultimate explanations and what is the link with the questions of Tinbergen?
    question 3 and 4 of Tinbergen, they require evolutionary reasoning and analysis
  • what do evolutionary psychologist do?
    seek to understand human thinking and behaviour
  • what do cognitive ethologists do?
    focus on understanding the behaviour of animals and often integrate information from neuroscience
  • 2 methods for studying animal behavior

  • what are analytical models for studying animal behaviour?
    all models about behaviour are based on assumptions about theology and evolution of an organism. analytical models allow scientists to easlity manipulate their assumptions to produce new predictions on behaviour
  • what is the observational method used for? is it used with wild animals?
    used to test hypotheses and to describe behavioural patterns, also with wild animals
  • what is the experimental method and which variables are used?
    scientists manipulate or change a variable to examine how it affects the behaviour of an animal.
    -independent variable: changed variable
    -dependent variable: occurs in respons to changes in the independent variable
  • what is meant with abiotic by the independent variable?
    abiotic: temperature, humidity, wind
    biotic: habitat, food availability, social interactions
  • what is the comparative method?
    scientists examine differences and similarities between species to understand the evolution of behaviours
  • what are ancestral traits and what is a different name for this?
    plesiomorphic, are found in a common ancestor of 2 of more species
  • what are derived traits and what is a different name for this?
    apomorphic, is found in a more recently evolved species and was not present in the common ancestor
  • what are sister species and what do they share?
    2 species that are more closely related to one another that to any other species, they share a recent common ancestor
  • what is a scientific misconduct and what does it includes?
    inappropriate analysis of data and plagiarism, includes falsification or fabrication of data
  • how can a scientific misconduct be identified?
    through peer-review or unsuccessful replicate
  • what are the 3 R's?
    -Replacement: using computer modeling, videotapes or other approaches in place of actual animals
    -Reduction: refers to limiting the number of animals subject to disturbance in research or teaching
    -refinement: involves improving procedures and techniques to minimise pain and stress for animals
  • what is a peer-review?
    a process to accept or reject a paper for publication
  • what is the difference between primary and secondary literature?
    primary are papers from scientists before publication and secondary are the results of scientific research reported in newspapers/magazines/books/tv/internet
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