# Summary Statistiek

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• ## 1 Business research general

• Research
The process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors.
A systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem encountered in the work setting, which needs a solution.
• Applied research
Research which aims to solve a current problem faced by a manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution.
• Basic (fundamental, or pure) research
Research to generate a body of knowledge by training to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved.
• Scientific research
Solving problems by pursuing a step-by-step logical organized, and rigorous method to identify the problems, gather data, analyses them, and draw valid conclusions from them.
• Hallmarks of scientific research
1. Purposiveness
2. Rigor
3. Testability
4. Replicability
5. Precision
6. Objectivity
7. Generalizability
8. Parsimony
• Purposiveness
The research has a purposive focus.
• Rigor
With a good theoretical base and which follows a carefully thought-out methodology.
• Testability
The hypothesis must be testable
• Replicability
The possibility to replicate the research
• Precision (confidence interval) and confidence
Precision refers to the degree of accuracy or exactitude of the results on the basis of the sample, to what really exists in the universe. Confidence refers to the probability that our estimators are correct.
• Objectivity
The conclusions should be based on facts of the findings derived form actual data.
• Generalizability
The scope of applicability of the research findings in one organizational setting to others.
• Parsimony
Simplicity in explaining the phenomena.
• Deductive reasoning
Starting with a general theory and then apply this theory to a specific case.
• Inductive reasoning
The process where we observe specific phenomena and on this bias arrive at general conclusions. Building/Generate. According to Karl Popper, it is not possible to "prove" a hypothesis by means of induction, because no amount of evidence assures us that contrary evidence will not be found.
• Managerial relevance
Who benefits from having the problem solved?
Has the problem not already been solved in prior research? And to which extent is the research relevant for the broader scope.
• Descriptive statistics
Methods of summarizing the data in an informative way.
• Inferential statistics
Methods to draw conclusion (or to make interferences).
• Theoretical framework
The foundation on which the entire deductive research project is based. It is a logically developed, described, and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation.
• Secondary data
Data that already exists and do not have to be collected by the researcher.
• Primary data
Information that the researcher gathers first hand through instruments as surveys, interviews, focus groups, or observations.
• Hypothesis
A tentative, yet testable, statement derived from the theory, which predicts what you expect to find in your empirical data.
• Directional hypothesis
Hypothesis which have terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than, and the like are used to conduct the hypothesis.
• Non-directional hypothesis
Those hypothesis that do postulate a relationship or difference, but offer no indication of the direction of these relationships or differences. They are used when the relationship is never been explored or when findings in previous research conflict with each other.
• Null-hypothesis
A hypothesis set up to be rejected in order to support an alternative hypothesis.
• Alternative hypothesis
A statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indicating differences between groups.
• Research design
A blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data, based on the research questions of the study.