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Summary - strategy: a global perspective
The nature of strategy
Multiple definitions of strategy, not one that is the definitive correct one
The three dimensions of strategy
- context - conditions surrounding strategic activities
- Process - Flow of strategy activities
- Content - outcome of strategy activities
Three stages of the strategy process:
Three dimensions of strategy context:
Two types of strategic problems:
Dialectic approach: Discussing the two opposite possibilities to come to a higher level resolution
Culture should always be considered in management.
Foreign cultures can be advantageous for the management at home, since they give enlightening experiences
1.1 Identifying the strategy issues
Two approaches to learning:
- Tools driven: understanding the tools first, then solve the problems with the combined tools.
- Problem driven: understanding the problem first, then comes searching for the right tools based on the type of problem.
1.1.1 Strategizing, missioning and visioning
There are two important inputs for strategy: the cognitive process for individual strategists (strategizing) and purpose as the impetus for strategy activities (missioning and visioning)
1.1.2 Strategy dimensions: Content, process and context
There are three dimensions of strategy:
- Strategy content: the combined decisions and choices that lead a company into the future. The what of strategy: what is and should be, the strategy for the company and each of its
- Strategy process: The manner in which strategies come about. The how, who and when of strategy: how is, and should strategy be made, analyses, dreamt up, formulated, implemented, changed and controlled; who is involved; and when do de necessary activities take place?
- Strategy context: The set of circumstances under which both the strategy content and the strategy process are determined. The where of strategy; where (which firm and environment) are strategy content and process embedded?
Waar gaat strategy process over?the how, who and when of strategy: how is and should strategy be made, analysed, dreamt-up, formulated, implemented, changed and controlled; who is involved, and when do the necessary activities take place?
Waar gaat strategy content over?what of strategy: what is/should be the strategy for the company and each of its constituent units?
waar gaat strategy context over?The where of strategy, in which firm and which environment are strategy content and strategy process embedded?
Strategy content, process and context are thee distinguishable dimensions, and are interrelated (they interact).
1.1.3 Strategy content: Business, corporate and network levels
The most common distinction is between levels of aggregation is between the functional, business and corporate level.
specific functional aspects/departmentsof a company ( operations strategy, marketing strategy, financial strategy, etc.)
Business level: integration of functional level strategies for a distinct set of products/services for a distinct group of customers.
If firms are in two or more businesses; corporate level strategy: aligns the various business level strategies.
Multi company or network level strategy: when firms cluster into groups of two or more collaborating organizations.
Outside in: positioning in the environment, the firm adapts to the demands of the market/game.
Inside out: companies search for environments and positions that best fit with their resource base.
1.1.4 Strategy process: Forming, changing and innovating
Strategies are usually formed incrementally, as organizations think and act in small iterative steps, letting strategies emerge as they go along.
Strategy formation, change and innovation are different aspects of the strategy process, which are strongly linked and partially overlapping.
1.1.5 Strategy context: Industry, organizational and international
It is wise for managers to strive for a fit between the strategy process, strategy content and the specific circumstances prevalent in the strategy context.
In short, strategy context can be determined, instead of letting it determine.
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What is meant by stimulus for creativity?
By presenting opposite perspectives, readers are stimulated to generate innovative ways of transcending (overstijgen) the strategic paradox.
what is meant by Stimulus for bridging?
By presenting both opposite perspective, readers will feel challenged to seek a way of getting the best of both worlds.
What is meant by the points of contention advantage?
By presenting these two opposites in debates, readers can quickly gain insight on these major points of contention (beweringen).
What is meant by the range of ideas advantage?
By presenting two opposite poles in each debate, readers can quickly understand the full range of ideas on the strategy issue.
What is embracing?
Embrance and actively use the tension as a source of creativity and opportunity. - the tension is exploited to benefit from the innovative power of tensions
What is resolving?
Developing a new synthesis between competing demands or exploiting the tension which creates a new balance between the contrary elements that will sustain for some time.
What is juxtaposing?
Simultaneously manage opposite demands on a permanent basis. The conflict between the opposites is accepted. Accommodate both factors at the same time. This requires dynamic capabilities.
What is balancing? (Ying-Yang balancing)
To manage opposite demands by trading off opposite demands and blending the most appropriate balance. (choose constitution elements of each demand to create a company specific balance).
What is parallel processing?
to separate the contrary demands in internal (departments or business units or external alliance partners (different organizational units).
What is navigating?
To focus on one contrary element at a time.