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Summary - Summary Technological Society
1 Traditional Perspectives
What does Technological Determinism entail?It tries to understand how a specific technology has had an impact on human action an thought
Technological Determinism- Inner logic
- Out of control, unpredictable
- Used as a medium
- Neutral tool
- All culture all same (context)
- History is predetermined by proceed
What are the 3 traditional perspectives?Technological Determinism, Linear model, Diffusion model
What does Diffusion Model entail?The Diffusion Model is established in 1962 by Rogers. Rogers defines diffusion as a process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.
When new innovations are invented, diffused and adapted or rejected, leading to certain consequences, social change occurs.
What are the 4 main elements of the Diffusion model1. Innovation
2. Communication Channels
4. Social System
What are the characteristics of the element innovation(s)?- Relative advantage (when an innovation is better than its predecessor)
- Compatibility (when an innovation is consistent with needs, values and experiences of the adopter)
- complexity (defines the level of difficulty for using an innovation)
- trialability (describes the basis wherein the adopter can experiment)
- observability (contains the results of adapting to an innovation as seen by others)
In what ways is the third element of the diffusion model (time) involved?Time is involved in the innovation-decision process by which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation through its adoption or rejection.
What is the innovation decision process in the diffusion model?It is the process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation through its adoption or rejection.
What are the steps of the innovation decision process?1: Knowledge (When an individual learns of the existence and gains understanding of the innovation)
2: Persuasion (When an individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards the innovation)
3: Decision (When an individual engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject)
4: Implementation ( When an individual puts an innovation into use)
5: Confirmation (When an individual seeks reinforcement of an innovation, individual can reverse this decision if there are conflicting messages about the innovation)
What does innovativeness entail?Innovativeness is the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the members of a system.
Why did Rogers developed the theory, diffusion of innovations?To explain the phenomena of people adapting to new innovations or products sooner than others. The theory explains how innovation gets adopted over time and by different cohorts.
What are the five categories of adopters (S curve)1: Innovators (2,5% first to learn about an innovation)
2: The early adaptors (13,5% opinion leaders, when so called child diseases are gone).
3: Early majority (34% take time to make decision, only adopt when they are convinced there are benefits)
4: Late majority (34% want innovations to be well tested)
5: Laggards (16% "lag of interest" highly resistant to change, want innovation to be mainstream)
What is the first critique on the Diffusion Model?Pro-innovation Bias, the implication of most diffusion research that an innovation should be diffused to and adopted by all members of a social system, that it should be diffused rapidly, and that the innovation should be neither reinvented or rejected.
What is the second critique on the Diffusion Model?The blame bias, the tendency to hold an innovation responsible for his /her problems, rather than the system of which the individual is a part.
What is the Linear model of progress?Technological Determinism believes that progress is linear. Once an innovation is introduces, progress will be made. It follows the same pattern every time a new innovation occurs; innovation, invention, usage, progress and repeat.
2 Social Shaping Perspectives
What is a social shaping perspective?When technology is shaped ideas, interests and politics point to the contribution of creative users, political network and cultural imagination.
Society affects technology by economics, politics and culture.
What are the three social shaping perspectives?Large Technical Systems (LTS)
Actor Network Theory (ANT)
Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)
What does SCOT entail?Social construction of technology approach arg that technology does not determine human action, but rather, human action shapes technology.
What are the different stages of SCOT?1. Interpretative flexibility, different relevant social groups (RSG) give the different meaning to technology. Design Flexibility, multiple ways of constructing technologies.
2. Closure, Rhetorical closure and Redefinition of the problem.
What does Rhetorical Closure entail?When social groups see the problem as being solved
What does redefinition of the problem entail?Other questions/problems occur and then solved.
What are the shortcomings of SCOT?- Too extreme, a one sided approach
- Does not explain how users shape technology
- Social resistence ignored
Compare Social shaping to the traditional theorySCOT: Multi-directional process, technology shaped by social factors, design has ethical implications.
Traditional: Linear process, technology is autonomous and shapes society, design is neutral.
Examples of SCOTBicycle, Dutch Deltaplan, Karakat
What is Feenbergs perspective?Feenberg makes us love technology again, technology changes the world more than it changes the actor. He claims that the technical and the social cannot be separated without losing sight of important dimensions. The essence of technology has been main focus, as being rational control, efficiency and something independent of social life.
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