Summary sustainability 1&2

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Summary - sustainability 1&2

  • 12 Introduction

  • Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 
    Brundtland Commission of the united nations 1987
  • What is needed now is a new era of economic growth that is forceful and at the same time socially and environmentally sustainable
    Brundtland Commission of the united nations 1987
  • Socio-economic-environmental issues:

    1 (finite) Materials Depletion
    2 Emissions of harmful componets to air/water/soil
    3 social factors
  • Equal wight should be given to the following three aspects, the social consequences of the total life cycle of a product, its ecological consequences and is economic profitability
    John Elkington 1998
  • 34 Life Cycle Assessment

  • Life Cicle Assessment
    Toof for quantification of Environmental Impact of a product
  • 1 Definition of the goal and scope of teh LCA
    2 Life Cycle inventory analysis (LCI)
    3 Life Cycle inpact assessment (LCIA)
    4 Life Cycle interpretation phase
  • 1 ADP = Abiotic Depletion potential
    2 GWP = Global Warming potential
    3 ODP = Ozone layer Depletion potential
    4 HTP = Human Toxicity potential
    5 FAETP = Freshwater Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential
    6 MAETP = Marine Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential
    7 TETP = Terrestrial Eco-toxicity potential
    8 POCP = Photochemical Osidation potential
    9 AP = Acidification potential
    10 EP = Eutrophication potential
    1 LC = Land oCcupation
  • ADP Abiotic Depletion potential

    Depletion of abiotic resources is defined as the consumpotion of finite resources and is estimated/quantified by relating yearly consumption/extraction rates to total present reserves
  • GWP = Global Warming potential

    Global Warming is defined as the effect of human (anthropogenic) emissions of gasses on the heat absorbing potential of the atmosphere
  • ODP Ozone Layer Depletion potential

    Depletion of ozone in the stratospeher occurs because of chemical reaction with specific gasses produced and emitted by human activities. 
    Depletion of ozone in the higher atmosphere results in less absorption of energy-rich solar UV-B radiation
  • HTP Human Toxicity potential
    FAETP Freshwater Aquatic eco-toxicity potential
    MAETP Marine Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential
    TETP Terrestrial Eco-toxicity potential

    Emitted harmful substances can end up in the atmosphere, soil of water. The distribution of specific compontents to thes different énvironmental compartments and its toxicity for biotic elements in these compartment is measured
  • POCP Photochemical Ocidation potential

    Photochemical oxidation of specifically air-pollutants in the troposphere results in reactive components (smog) harmul for humans and animals
  • AP Acidification potential

    Acidic compounds are chemically active and can have both strond effects on:
    1 soil and water chemistry affecting in life in it
    2 construction materials
  • EP Eutrophication potential

    Eutrophication is the process of excess deposition of nutrients in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. It can result in shifts in plant community composition, increased biomass production and oxygen depletion in aquatic encironments. High nutrient concentrations can als negatively affect drinking water quality
  • LC LAnd oCcupation

    environmental impact of land area use needed for the production of a product. That occupied land reduces natrual ecosystem area
  • Too much to cope with (sometimes)

    Single-issue methods
    Multiple-issue mehtods
  • 78 Element Cycling

  • Element Cycling
  • Materials production: Effect on environment due to:

    1 Consumption of finite natural resources
    2 Emission of harmful compounds
  • C, H, O, N, S, P are six main elements important for:

    Life: all excisting life forms are composed of at least these six elements
    Materials: many construction materials are partially composed of these six elements but, more importantly, natural element cycling can negatively affect material durbility performance
  • Element cycling C

    atomosperic pool 760
    living organic matter 450
    dead organic matter 700
    Ocean surface 500
    Living organic matter (under ocean surface) 10
    dead organic matter (under oncean surface) 3000
    Deap sea 34500
    Recoverable coal and oil 8000
    Sediments 20000000
  • Photosynthesis

    Energy (sun light) + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    Respiration

    C6H12O6 (biomass) + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  • Element cycling C
  • Since 19th century: extensive use of fossil fuels
    -> Natural C-cycle off-balance:
    -> Strong increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration
    ->Increased Global Warming
  • The most common gas released by magma is steam (H2O) folleowd by CO2 (carbon dioxide) SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and HCL hydrogen chloride
  • since 2,7*10^9 years ago: Oxygenic photosynthesis

    Cyanobacteria: primary producers

    Oxygen photosynthesis:

    CO2 + H2O -> CH2O + O2

    CO2 reduction 4 electrons CH2O
    H2O oxidation 4 electrons O2
  • Recent carbon-cycle

    CO2 + H2O <-->C6H12O6 + O2 (--> small amount/year to deposition/fossilization: fossil fuels)
  • Anonxygenic photosynthesis: not H20 but H2S is electron-donor

    Purple sulfur bacteria: primary producers

    2CO2 + 2 H2O + H2S -> 2CH2O (biomass) + H2SO4

    CO2 reduction 4 electrons -> CH2O
    H2S Oxidation 8 electrons -> H2SO4
  • Anaerobic respiration: Sulfate-reducing bacteria

    2CH2O + H2SO4 ->  2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O

    Methanagenic bacteria:

    2CH2O -> CH4+CO2

    4H2 6 CO2 -> CH4 + 2H2O
  • Puple Sulfur  bacteria ->
    Sulfate reducing bacteria <-


    2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O -> 2CH2O + H2SO4 (--> small amount/year deposition fossilization: fossil fuels)
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