Summary Systems Approach in Animal Sciences (SAAS)

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Summary - Systems Approach in Animal Sciences (SAAS)

  • 1.1 Systems Approach

  • What is the starting point for scientific research?
    The formulation of a perceived problem into a general problem statement, which in turn leads to the formulation of one or more research hypotheses. 
  • 1.2 Scientific approaches

  • Roger Bacons idea about experimental science developed into a scientific approach, which one? 
    - Separating the perceived problem from its context
    - Ceteris Paribus (everything stays the same) 

  • René Descartes' system concept
    - The world acts like a machine
    - Break it up into parts and study those parts seperately to understand them
  • Reductionistic approach
    1. reduction: knowledge of separate elements, leads to know-how
    2. determinism: knowledge of sum of the parts/whole
  • A reductionistic approach:
    zooms in at a problem
  • The system approach:
    zooms out at a problem
  • 1.4 The system concept

  • A system can be interpreted as a ....
    - method of operation
    - unit
  • Bertalanffy's system concept
    - general systems theory
    - breaking up in parts leads to a loss of synergy and emergent properties 
  • Bertanlanffy's definition for a system in the sense of a unit:
    A system is an entity, which maintains its existence through mutual interaction of its parts

  • The basic characteristics of any system:
    - A system consists out of components which are interrelated
    - Systems are arranged in a hierarchy
    - Synergy among system components creates a whole that is more than the sum of its parts. The special properties of this system aas a result of synergy are called emergent properties.
    - Systems have a boundary.
    - Systems have inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback loops. 
    - The process of homeostasis acts to bring a system back to equilibrium when external forces disturb it. 

  • 1.5 System hierarchy: subsystems, systems and supra systems

  • Inputs and outputs in a systems are not equal because the system needs ...
    maintenance
  • Hierarchy in systems:
    suprasystem-system-subsystem
  • 1.6 System boundary

  • Systems are considered systems because ....
    The choice of boundary depends on our point of view
  • 1.7 Homeostasis and feedback

  • Homeostatis is ....
    the maintenance of an equilibrium
  • Negative-feedback mechanism control the stat of the system by
    dampening or reducing the size of system's elements or attributes

  • Positive-feedback mechanisms 
    feed or increase the size of one or more of the systems elements or attributes over time 
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