Summary The Geo / 2 Havo/Vwo / Deel Coursebook

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ISBN-13 9789006433913
334 Flashcards & Notes
24 Students
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This is the summary of the book "The Geo / 2 Havo/Vwo / Deel Coursebook ". The author(s) of the book is/are Chris de Jong. The ISBN of the book is 9789006433913. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - The Geo / 2 Havo/Vwo / Deel Coursebook

  • 1 South Africa and Argentinia, two countries with two faces

  • What's the name of a very famous island just off the coast of Cape town?
    Robben Island
  • Why is Robben Island famous?
    Robben Island is famous because it used to be a prison for people who criticized the South African government. Now it's a museum.
  • What is the system that was called apartheid?
    - The population was divided into whites, blacks and mixed race people
    - They all had to live separately (separate schools, separate neighbourhoods, separate buses, separate beaches and separate prisons) (by law)
    - The whites had all the power
    - Apartheid was abolished in 1990
  • How can you see the consequences of the apartheid in prisons?
    - black prisoners and mixed-race prisoners lived together in a prison
    - white prisoners have their own prisons
    - black prisoners had only a shirt and shorts to wear, the mixed-race prisoners also had trousers and a hat.
  • Who was the most famous prisoner on Robben Island?
    The most famous prisoner on Robben Island was Nelson Mandela. He spent 27 years there because of his political opinions. 
    Het was released in 1990, and he became the first president of the new South Africa.
  • Why does sout Africa calls itself the 'Rainbouw Nation'?
    South Africa calls itself the 'Rainbouw Nation to show that it's a country where white, black and mixed-race people live together.
  • Where's South-Africa?
    South Africa is in Sub-Saharan Africa, the cultural region south of the Sahara.
  • What's a cultural region?
    Large region with similar cultural characteristics.
  • Why was Nelson Mandela in prison?
    He was in prison for political reasons (he opposed) apartheid).
  • Can they imprison you for political reasons in the Netherlands?
    No, there's freedom of speech in the Netherlands.
  • What do people mean by the 'new South Africa'. 
    South Africa after apartheid, with a democratically elected government.
  • 1.1 Focus on South Africa

  • A lot of people in South Africa speek Afrikaans, which is a bit like Dutch, why?
    A long time ago South Africa was a Dutch colony.
  • 1.1.1 Climate

  • How is the climate on the east coast?

    - Summers are hot and humid
    - An onshore wind brings air from the Indian Ocean
    - There are short but heavy burst of rain followed by sunshine
  • How is the climate on the plateau (Hogeveld)?

    - the climate is drier and cooler than on the east coast.
    - It isn't very warm there in summer.
    - Sometimes there are even a few degrees of frust in winter.
  • How is the climate further west?
    Further west are steppes and semi-desert where there is no rain fall.
  • What kind of landscapes do you see most in South Africa?
    steppe and desert.
  • What is the windward side?
    The side of a mountain that faces the wind/the wind hits.
  • What is relief rainfall?
    Rainfall that is caused when air rises against mountains. The air rises when it hits the windward side of the mountain and it cools. Then it rains.
  • What is leeward side?
    The side of a mountain that faces away from the wind. The air goes down and gets warmer. There is very little precipitation on the leeward side.
  • What is rain shadow?
    Area behind a mountain where very ittle rain falls. The air goes down on the leeward side of a mountain and gets warmer. there is very little precipitation on the leeward side.
  • There are three factors that influence temperature. They are called temperature factors, name them?
    1. Latitude: the further you go from the Equator, the colder it gets.
    2. Altitude: the higher you go, the colder it gets.
    3. Land-sea distribution: the further you go from the sea, the warmer it gets in summer and the colder it gets in winter.
  • Why does the Earth need a 'heater' and what is the 'heater of the Earth?
    The surface of the Earth is cold. It needs a 'heater'to stay warm. The Earth's heater is the sun. the sun is a ball of fire with a temperature of 6,000 graden Celsius. It sends out so much heat that the Earth feels warm. But some places get more heat than others.
  • Latitude has a strong influence on the temperature caused by the position of the sun. Places with a high latitude (North and South Poles) are very cold. Places with a low latitude (tropics) are very hot. Why?
    Because the Earth is a sphere. The sun's rays shines vertically en diagonally. The heat is less intense when the sun's rays shines more diagonally. The heat is distributed over an bigger surface. Than when is shines vertically.
  • Why is the temperature higher in the tropics?
    In the tropics the sun is high in the sky all day. The rays shine almost vertically on the Earth's surface and the shadows are short. Vertical rays give a lot of heat because they shine on a small surface.
  • Name two reasons why the Earth gets more heat from vertical rays than from diagonal rays.
    1. Diagonal rays give less heat than vertical rays because they shine on a bigger surface.
    2. diagonal rays take longer to travel through the asmosphere, they hir more clouds and dust along the way and are reflected back into the cosmos.
  • Why is it much warmer at the bottom of a mountain thant at the top?
    1. The sun heats the Earth. The sun's rays pass through the atmosphere but they don't give any heat until they fall on the Earth. That's why the surface of the Earth is warm. Theis warm surface then begins to radiate heat to. These rays heat the air. So the atmosphere is heated from below.
    2. The higher you go, the colder it gets. The temperature drops by 0,6 degree Celsius every time you climb another 100 metres.
  • The Earth's surface consists of land and water. The sun's rays fall either on land or water. The different ways in which the sun heats land and water influence the temperature. You can feel the difference when you walk barefoot on the sand on a hot summer day. the dry sand is so hot that is sometimes hurts your feet. When you step into the sea you feel immediately that the water is much colder. When you walk barefoot on the sand on a summer evening, you feel that the sand is much cooler, but the temperature of the seawater is still the same. It feels just as good as it did in the afternoon, it even feels warmer. What can you learn from this 'sand-and-sea' experiment?
    1. Land gets warmer than water but it gets colder than water too.
    2. Land heats up and cools down faster than water.
  • The difference in temperture above land and sea also influences the air temperature. Why?
    1. the temperature of the air above the sea is never very high or very low. that's because the sea keeps the temperature at a more or less equal level.
    2. The air above land can be very warm but also very cold. and it can change suddenly.
  • The direction of the wind has a strong influence on the temperature. In winter when the wind comes from the north-east it freezes in the Netherlands, but when the wind comes from the south-west, it thawes. How do you name these different winds?
    1. Sea winds are called onshore winds
    2. land winds are called offshore winds
  • What influence has a onshore wind on the temperature in summer and winter?
    When there is an onshore wind (sea wind), it is coller in summer and warmer in winter (it thaws)
  • How's the situation with the wind-temperature thing in the Netherlands?
    In the Netherlands the wind usually comes from the West. The west wind brings cool summers and mild winters, because the west wind in the Netherlands is a sea wind from the Atlantic Ocean. The east wind is a land wind from Europe.
  • What are 'ocean currents'?
    The moving of the seawater in the oceans 
  • What do ocean currents transport?
    Ocean currents can transport warm tropical seawaterto the poles and they can transport cold polar water to warmer regions.
  • How influences an ocan current the temperature on the land?
    A good example is Hammerfest, a coastal town in the far north of Norway, with a northern lititude of almost 71;, Most people expect the winter temperature in Hammerfest to be aroun -30 graden celsius, but it's only a few degrees below zero. That's because ther's a warm ocean current along the Norwegion coast.
  • Why gets it never very cold in the coastal regions of west and north-west Europe in winter?
    1. because of the Gulf Stream.
    2. because of the westerly winds
  • Every ocean current has a name. Why is the ocean current along the Norwegian coast called 'Gulf Stream'?
    The Gulf Stream brings warm water from the Gulf of Mexico to the west coast of Europe.
  •  Why does the location of mountains influences the temperature?
    ex. Temperature in Scandinavia in winter:
    - Gulf Stream bring war seawater from the Gulf of Mexico.
    - the westerly winds carry the warm air across the sea to Scandinavia.
    - the scandinavian highlands stand in the way. 
    - the harbours in the coastal towns in Norway don't freeze in winter.
    - but the harbours on the east coast do freeze. it's very cold in Sweden on the other side of the highlands.
  • Why are the Swedish summers warmer than Norwegian summers. Sweden is on the side of the scandinvian highlands were it is very cold in winter.
    The cool sea air stays in the mountains of the scandinavian Highlands.
  • The German climatologist Vladimir Köppen identified five climate zones in his so called 'Koppen's climate classification system'. Which 5?

    A. tropical rainforest climate
    B. Dry climate
    C. Sea climate (maritime climate)
    D. Continental climate
    E. Polar climate
  • Where are the  five climate zones of the Koppen's climate classification system based on?

    Four of these zones ('A','C','D' and 'E' are based on temperture. 'A' indicates the warmest climate, 'E' indicates the coldest climate.

    'B' is for zones that are so dry that hardly anything grows there. That's why 'B' is also based on (the absence of) precipitation.
  • Can one describe the five clmate zones of the Koppen's climate classification system in more detail?

    Yes, by adding extra letters:
    1. You can add extra capital letters.
             'B' means that the climate is dry. But extra capital letters give more                 information:
              'BW' is a very dry desert climate
               'BS' is a less dry steppe climate
    2. You can add small letters to tell you if the climate has a dry period. ('f', 's',      'w'.
  • Which small letters can you add to the five climate zones of the Koppen's climate classification system to tell you if the climate has a dry period?

    f = fehlt          --> no dry period; precipitation all year
    s = sommer  -->  dry in the summer
    w = winter     --> dry in the winter
  • What is a Cs climate?

    A Cs climate is a temperate maritime climate with a dry summer. This is also called a Mediterranean climate, although it ocuurs in other parts of the world besides the Mediterranean - in Canada, for example.
  • What's an Aw climate?

    An Aw climate is a tropical climate with a dry winter. This is also called a savannah climate.
  • One of the climate zones of the Koppen's climate classification system indicates the coldest climate. There are a few capitals that can only be added to this climate zone. Name climate zone and the capital letters that can be added.
    The E-climate indicates the coldest climate. The following capital letters can be added to the E climate:
    F = (perpetual) snow in the polar regions
    H = (perpetual) snow on high mountain ranges.
    T = tundra
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Mediterranean climate
Warm, dry summers and mild winters WITH precipation
How is the climate on the plateau?
- the climate is drier and cooler than on the east coast.
- It isn't very warm there in summer.
- Sometimes there are even a few degrees of frost in winter.
South Africa has 5 different climates
Mediterranean climate
Sea climate with precipitation throughout the year
Sea climate with dry winters
Dessert climate
Steppe climate
what means urbanization pace?
that much people are moving from the country to the city in a small amount of years
why does nike makes hi clothes and shoes in china
because they can make it for low prices and the people work here for low wages and they didn't have to pay much texas 
give a example of  multinational?
nike
what happens after 1980?
free market economy
special economic zones
china was different untill 1980 , what was different?
communist country
planned economy 
what is a one-child policy?
you can have only one child otherwise you have to pay much fine
how much is the population increasing every year?
15 million