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Summary - The practice of social research
1 Science and Social Research
epistemologiewetenschap van de 'kennis'
How can an empirical question be answered?By observation
methodologiewetenschap van het 'uitvinden'
Which types of empirical research are there?Descriptive
- When it is measurable
- Cause--> effect
agreement realityde dingen die we 'weten' door de cultuur, dit helpt, maar ook hindert onderzoek doen
Where do empirical questions come from?Curiosity
fouten in onderzoek doen?
- inaccuraat observeren
- selectief observeren'
- onlogisch redeneren
What is induction?Is most of the time about generalizing. When you see something in your research you assume that it is always like that. Specific to general
replicatiehet herhalen van een onderzoek om zo de bevindingen te toetsen/bevestigen . Zo kan je overgeneralisatie tegen gaan!
What is Deduction?From general to specific
Which types of research questions are there?Normative
What is a normative question?What should we do
What is a conceptual question?What is the meaning of the case
What is a empirical question?What is the case.
From which there is an empirical question?Variabels
Settings (most of the time)
What is a research question?It formulates the subject, units, variables and setting of what you go to research
Design and (cycle of) decision-making
- Problem & need analyses (How big is the problem/what are its causes?)
- Find & Design options (Which options have been used by others)
- Ex ante options evaluations (Can we expect the option to work?)
- Implementation (Did we do as planned? Process evaluation)
- Ex post choice evaluation (Did the selected option have the expected outcome? Outcome evaluation)
What is done in the Find & Design options?Which options have been used by others?
What is the purpose of the Ex post choice evaluation?To evaluate if the selected option has the expected outcome (outcome evaluation)
What is done in the implementation part?Did we do as planned? (process evaluation)
What is the purpose of Ex ante options evaluation?To evaluate if we can expect the option to work.
Wheel of science
- data collection
- data analysis
Stap 2&3 are for deduction
Stap 4&5 are for induction
What is Confirmation BiasFinding the answers that we 'want to' find that confirm pre-existing beliefs or favored hypotheses by ignoring evidence and/or avoiding critical evaluation.
What is a normative Question?What should be the case?
(Should the government be responsible for reducing poverty? )
What is a Conceptual question?What is the meaning of the case?
(What is poverty?)
What is a empirical question?What is the case?
Descriptive (What is the percentage of people who think that the government should reduce poverty?)
Explanatory (Does wealth make people think that the government should not be responsible for reducing the poverty?)
What is the purpose of a Need and problem analysis?Getting information about how big is the problem and what are the causes?
What is a Unit (of analysis?)The unit is the thing/group/person etc. where is looking in to.
What is a variable?A variable is the aspect in de RQ that is variable. When people are the units the motivation level can be the variable.
What is a Setting?A setting is the place/location etc. where the units of the RQ are.
Which levels of measurements are there?
How does a dichotomy level of measurement look like?Yes/No
How does a Nominal measure level look like?Dutch/English/German
nominal variables are used to “name,” or label a series of values.
How does a Ordinal measure level look like?Low/Middle/high
The purpose of ordinal measurement is to order. The distance between the variables can't be calculated.
How does a Interval measure level look like?IQ: 50, 60, 70
there is no absolute zero point.
An interval measure level is expressed in numbers.
The range between the variables is always the same.
How does a Ratio measure level look like?Ratio is pretty similar to interval. But with Ratio there is an Absolute zero point
Ecological fallacyWhen the researcher makes a wrong conclusion from statistical data.
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