Summary The practice of social research

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ISBN-10 1133050093 ISBN-13 9781133050094
337 Flashcards & Notes
18 Students
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This is the summary of the book "The practice of social research". The author(s) of the book is/are Earl Babbie. The ISBN of the book is 9781133050094 or 1133050093. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - The practice of social research

  • 1 Science and Social Research

  • epistemologie
    wetenschap van de 'kennis'
  • How can an empirical question be answered?
    By observation
  • methodologie
    wetenschap van het 'uitvinden'
  • Which types of empirical research are there?
    Descriptive
    • When it is measurable
    Explanatory
    • Cause--> effect 
  • agreement reality
    de dingen die we 'weten' door de cultuur, dit helpt, maar ook hindert onderzoek doen
  • Where do empirical questions come from?
    Curiosity
    Science
  • fouten in onderzoek doen?
    1. inaccuraat observeren
    2. overgeneraliseren
    3. selectief observeren'
    4. onlogisch redeneren
  • What is induction?
    Is most of the time about generalizing. When you see something in your research you assume that it is always like that. Specific to general
  • replicatie
    het  herhalen van een onderzoek om zo de bevindingen te toetsen/bevestigen . Zo kan je overgeneralisatie tegen gaan!
  • What is Deduction?
    From general to specific
  • Which types of research questions are there?
    Normative
    Conceptual
    Empirical
  • What is a normative question?
    What should we do
  • What is a conceptual question?
    What is the meaning of the case
  • What is a empirical question?
    What is the case.
  • From which there is an empirical question?
    Variabels
    Units
    Settings (most of the time)
  • What is a research question?
    It formulates the subject, units, variables and setting of what you go to research
  • Design and (cycle of) decision-making
    1. Problem & need analyses (How big is the problem/what are its causes?)
    2. Find & Design options (Which options have been used by others)
    3. Ex ante options evaluations (Can we expect the option to work?)
    4. Choice
    5. Implementation (Did we do as planned? Process evaluation)
    6. Ex post choice evaluation (Did the selected option have the expected outcome? Outcome evaluation)
  • What is done in the Find & Design options?
    Which options have been used by others?
  • What is the purpose of the Ex post choice evaluation?
    To evaluate if the selected option has the expected outcome (outcome evaluation)
  • What is done in the implementation part?
    Did we do as planned? (process evaluation)
  • What is the purpose of Ex ante options evaluation?
    To evaluate if we can expect the option to work.
  • Wheel of science
    1. Question
    2. Theory
    3. research
    4. design
    5. data collection
    6. data analysis
    7. answers/knowledge

    Stap 2&3 are for deduction
    Stap 4&5 are for induction
  • What is Confirmation Bias
    Finding the answers that we 'want to' find that confirm pre-existing beliefs or favored hypotheses by ignoring evidence and/or avoiding critical evaluation.
  • What is a normative Question?
    What should be the case?
    (Should the government be responsible for reducing poverty? )
  • What is a Conceptual question?
    What is the meaning of the case?
    (What is poverty?)
  • What is a empirical question?
    What is the case?
    Descriptive (What is the percentage of people who think that the government should reduce poverty?)

    Explanatory (Does wealth make people think that the government should not be responsible for reducing the poverty?)
  • What is the purpose of a Need and problem analysis?
    Getting information about how big is the problem and what are the causes?
  • What is a Unit (of analysis?)
    The unit is the thing/group/person etc. where is looking in to.
  • What is a variable?
    A variable is the aspect in de RQ that is variable. When people are the units the motivation level can be the variable.
  • What is a Setting?
    A setting is the place/location etc. where the units of the RQ are.
  • Which levels of measurements are there?
    • Dichotomy
    • Nominal
    • interval
    • ordinal
    • ratio
  • How does a dichotomy level of measurement look like?
    Yes/No
  • How does a Nominal measure level look like?
    Dutch/English/German
    nominal variables are used to “name,” or label a series of values.
  • How does a Ordinal measure level look like?
    Low/Middle/high
    The purpose of ordinal measurement is to order. The distance between the variables can't be calculated.
  • How does a Interval measure level look like?
    IQ: 50, 60, 70
    there is no absolute zero point.
    An interval measure level is expressed in numbers.
    The range between the variables is always the same.
  • How does a Ratio measure level look like?
    Ratio is pretty similar to interval. But with Ratio there is an Absolute zero point
  • Ecological fallacy
    When the researcher makes a wrong conclusion from statistical data.
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Wat is PAR (Participatory Action Research)? Tip: afleiden van de naam
De onderzochten krijgen meer controle over de bedoelingen en procedures van het onderzoek. Dit is om het traditionele idee dat onderzoekers belangrijker zijn tegen te gaan. Vaak worden disadvantaged groups onderzocht.
Wat is de Grounded Theory?
Een inductieve benadering: je gaat dus van observaties naar theorie! Verschilt met hypothesetesting waarbij het deductief is.
Welke naam hoort bij Ethnomethodology?
Garfinkel met zijn 'breaching experiments'':
Wat houdt Ethnomethodology in?
Een benadering die veronderstellingen wil ontdekken, vaak door het opzettelijk breken van afspraken om zo achter dingen te komen. ''People describe their world not as it is but how they make sense of it''
Wat is de ''ethnographic fallacy''?
Naturalisme: onderzoek doen op deze manier kan leiden tot overgeneralisatie en oversimplificatie
Waar ging Street Corner Society over?
Whyte deed een onderzoek over social life on the streets, en werd een insider om zo gedetailleerd onderzoek te kunnen doen.
Wat is een ethnografie?
een sociaal rapport dat focust op een gedetailleerde descriptie ipv een explanatie
Wat houdt het Naturalisme in?
Een benadering van veldonderzoek gebaseerd op de assumptie dat er een objectieve sociale realiteit is die nauwkeurig geobserveerd kan worden
Wat is een distorter variable?
Een testvariabele die het verband 'omdraait'
Wat is een suppressor variable?
Een variabele die de zichtbaarheid van het verband dat er wel is 'onderdrukt'. Voorbeeld: mannen en vrouwen die drinken. Als je leeftijd als test-variable gebruikt, dan blijkt dat oudere mannen meer drinken dan jongere vrouwen. Terwijl het gaat om