# Summary The Thames & Hudson Introduction To Art

ISBN-13 9780500239438
232 Flashcards & Notes
14 Students

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• ## 1.1.1 Line

• How can the term "line" be defined" and what are they used for?
Simply put: "Line is a tool for describing, in a simple way and in two dimensions, the boundaries and edges of three dimensions."
A line functions as a mark, either connecting two points, determining a shape's outlineor defining the boundaries between planes (layers) in a two-dimensional work. Another function they have is telling the viewer where to look in a work of art. Lines are also used to convey a sense of movement.
• What could lines express?
For one, they can be used to regulate and control, if they are clear and well-defined. On the other hand, they can express freedom and passion if they are more irregular, as if they come straight from the depths of the mind of their creator, which can be seen in scribbles for example.
• What is an implied line?
Other than an actual line, an implied line gives the impression of a line without there actually being one. For example, a trail of dots is not an actual line, yet we still look at it like it is.
• What is a directional line?
A line that makes us focus on something that we should notice by redirecting the viewer's gaze.
• What is a contour line?
An outer edge of an object, that suggests volume in space even when there is none. These are about change and don't necessarily need to be very well-defined.
• What are communicative lines?
Lines that are meant to convey certain feelings and emotions. Diagonals, for one, represent speed and athleticism, verticals strength and horizontals peace. This is used in logos, in which certain responses are very important to their success.
• ## 1.1.2 Shape

• What is a shape?
A two-dimensional area of which the boundaries are defined by lines or suggested by changes in colour or value.
• What are geometric shapes?
Shapes that are composed of regular lines and curves, like a triangle or a square. It is mathematically regular and precise. These can be plotted.
• What are organic shapes?
Shapes that are composed of irregular, unpredictable lines, like the ones found in the natural world (the "organic" world).
• What are implied shapes?
Shapes without continuous boundary, in the same way lines can be implied. For example, this old AT&T logo is not defined by any actual lines, but it is still a circle.
• ## 1.1.3 Contrast

• What is the principle of contrast?
The application of two greatly different states of an element. Examples:
- regular and irregular lines
- geometric and organic shapes
• What are positive and negative shapes?
Positive shapes are supported by a negative background, which is contrasting and makes them stand out. Black and white are the most common examples for this. However, the negative shapes can have a meaning of their own, like the arrow in the Fed-Ex logo.
• ## 1.1.4 Conclusion

• What are concentric shapes?
Shapes that share one centre or axis. A dartboard, for example, comprises a series of concentric circles with the bullseye as the centre.
• ## 1.2 Three-Dimensional Art: Form, Value, Mass and Texture

• What are the four elements of three-dimensional works of art?
Form, volume, mass and texture.
• ## 1.2.1 Form

• What is the difference between a form and a shape?
A shape is flat and cannot be touched, whereas a form is a three-dimensional object that exists in a space.
• What are the most important attributes of form?
Mass and volume.
• What are geometric forms?
These are regular forms that can be expressed in words or numbers, like spheres, cones and pyramids.
• What are organic forms?
The forms of the human world that aren't regular, like the human body.
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What were the rules of Renaissance art based on?
Mathematics. This was partially because the artists wanted to prove that art involved thinking, meaning that it was a liberal art instead of a mechanical art. They needed math for perspective.
What were the two problems with art until the early Renaissance?
1. It was mainly manufacture, just like shoe making. You did it until you were good at it.
2. There was no word for art.
How did one become an artist in the Renaissance?
Through education, and an apprenticeship. Children started working in workshops from about the age of twelve on, where they were taught the tricks of the trade. After ten years, one could be an independent master, but for most, this never happened. In the workshop, they would learn how to mix paint from precious stones and other materials. There was no theory, it was all practice, imitation, and trial and error.
What was a humanist in the Renaissance?
These were people who read the Ancient classics and texts from authors like Pliny, Ovid, etc. They read about behaviour and philosophy, what it meant to live in a perfect society, etc. They had to learn rherotic to convince others. They were government officials. None of this clashed with Christianity.
Who invented the linear perspective?
Brunelleschi, in the early 1400s. He shared this with painters like Masaccio, who improved it even further.
How was the human body depicted in the Renaissance?
Realistic, yet idealized - especially in the case of figures from Antiquity. The naked body was showcased. Three-dimensionality was important.
How were artists viewed during the Renaissance?
As creative geniuses who could even be divinely inspired. This was unlike the medieval perspective, where artists were mere craftsmen.
Which themes marked the Renaissance?
1. Increased interest in education and the natural world.