Summary Theoretical Issues in Psychology An Introduction

ISBN-10 0761942017 ISBN-13 9780761942016
242 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Theoretical Issues in Psychology An Introduction". The author(s) of the book is/are Sacha Bem Huib Looren de Jong. The ISBN of the book is 9780761942016 or 0761942017. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Theoretical Issues in Psychology An Introduction

  • 1 science: why and how?

  • Epistemology
    Theory of knowledge, How and why
  • Realism
    Knowlegde pictures the objective world.  Mind-independent. 
    Truth= Correspondence --> theory is true if it's corresponding with nature
  • Idealism
    Knowledge is a subjective construction. World existst only in our mind, we create it
    Truth= coherence -->Theory is true when it is consistent with the rest of our knowledge
  • Pragmatism
    Knowledge is functional and interactive, between idealism & realism. Between objective and subjective. --> Functional view of knowledge. 
    Truth: Success
  • Scientific Knowledge
    Objective. Testable (clear and unambiguous)
    Revisable (anti-dogmatic). Falsibilism (popper)
    Well-defined methods (norms etc)
  • Unification
    Same laws everywhere. Part of scientific knowledge
  • Reduction
    Reducing to a more basic level. Underlying causes explain macro-phenomena. More basic theories. There is nothing but matter in motion.
  • Two table theory
    Ebbington. Table one is the Visible table. (solid, color, weight) table 2: Molecular table. (space with protons etc.)
  • Image distinction
    Sellars. Image: the way the man thinks of themselve in the world. Manifest image: common sense, objective. Scientific image: particles and forces.
    Main difference: Not the difference between scientific and non-scientific. But between techniques tell us about correlation and the invisible things that make the correlation between visible things possible
  • Deduction
    Deducing from a general law to a personal thing. From big to small. Conclusion is only true when: 1.Argument must be valid, 2.the premisses must be true. Not new knowledge
  • Premises
    Assumption that something is true. An argument needs true premisses to make a valid conclusion
  • Sylogism
    logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion with help of 2 premises
  • Induction
    Generalising form observation. New Knowledge, no certainty. To go from a individual thing to a generalisation. Small to Big. 
    Problem:It can not be formalised, and every observation can be disconfeirmed by a new one
  • The problem of Induction
    The suspicion that scientific interference is not justifiable and consequently that science is unfounded.
    Bacon: empiricism. drawing generalisations
    Hume: induction problem, no certainty
    Popper: uninteresting, more of the same.Better bold conjectures
  • Raven's Paradox
    If with induction, you see a black raven, all raven's should be black. But according to the induction formula; even all white things that are not ravens are consistent with the theory. Induction can not be logically justified.
  • Abduction
    Inference to the best explanation. No logical certainty, new hypothetical knowledge about causes. The conclusion is just a possibility. 
  • Context of Justification
    Focus on normative criteria for holding a theory true. Focus on the degree to which theories are empirical or logical supported. (induction, deduction). Nothing to do with social or psychological problem solving. Normative
  • Context of Discovery
    Focus on historical and psychology on how theories are invented. Under what conditions does science works. Descriptive
  • Heuristics
    Finding rules, guidelines for discovery. Abduction
  • Theory-Ladenness
    Theorie influences observation. Always observation is partly determined by on one's theoretical assumptions
  • Empiricism (Bacon)
    collection data and observations is the right way to do science. Pure observations, imagination was dangerous. 
  • Theory
    Set of statements that organizes, predicts and explains observations.
  • Law
    Empirical generalization. A real law has to be counterfactual (never reversible)
  • Empirical law
    Observables with empirical generalizations
  • Theoretical law
    Laws with unobservables.
  • Model
    mini-theory. visual representation of the theory. 
  • Hierarchy of language levels. Ordening theories etc.
    1. Theories
    2.Experimental laws (empirical). 
    3. Assigning numeric values to concepts. (V=2. I=8)
    4.Primary data (observations)

    4-->1 predictive power increases.
  •  Four conditions of casual laws (Nagel)
    1. There must be an invariable relation between cause and effect --> cause has to be necessary condition for the effect
    2. cause and effect must be in the same spatial domain, or connection in space
    3.the cause must precede the effect and be temporally close to it.
    4.The relation must be asymmetrical. 
  • Ceteris Paribus Laws
    Solution for causalisation. the effect follows only when the circumstances do not change. 
  • The Empircal Cycle (de Groot(
    1. Observation --> gathering the data (discovery)
    2. Induction --> phrasing of an explicit hypothesis (discovery)
    3. Deduction -->formulate predictions so that they can be tested against empirical data (justification)
    4. Testing --> confronting the predictions against te empirical data (justification)
    5. Evaluation --> feedback for the more general theory from which the hypothesis are derived (discovery)
  • Operationalisation
    Defining concepts as measurement operations (IQ etc.)
  • Quine-Duhem thesis
    Theory underdetermined by data. Changing background assumptions may salvage a theory in the face of disconfirming data
  • Kinds of Explanation
    1. Nomological explanation (explain by law)
    2. Hermeutic understanding
    3.Show function of a trait (what a trait is for)
  • Nomological explanation
    The classical view. Deductive-Nomological. explaining an event under a general law. 
  • Covering-law model
    Model in the nomological explanation theory. Law+conditions= explanans (that what explains), the event of phenomenon deduced from the law = explanandum. 
  • Problems with Nomological explanation
    1. Not every deduction is a real explanation
    2. Not told how to find the general laws
    3.No distinguish between real laws an accidental generalizations
    4.Observations are not neutral. Theory-laden
  • Hermeuntic Understanding
    Verstehen. feelings, meaningful interpretation from text and behavior. No laws and generalizations. Own feelings not causes. 
    Problems: not verifiable or objective.
  • Functional, Teleological explanation
    Presence of a trait is explained by it's function. (Why?). Adaptation. 
    functional interpretation. Causal role between input and behavior. 
    problems: cheap, circular and pseudo-science
  • Multiple realisation
    a function can be realized in different kinds of material substrate; mental functions. 
  • Ernst Mayr (biology)
    2 kinds of biology: 1. Functional biology: the operation and interaction of structural elements (contribution to the system, "How?"). 2. Evolutionary biology: selectional history. (why, how come?)
  • Functionalism
    idea that the mind can be seen as a function. Virtual machine. does instead of is. 
    dualism--> every function is realised in a material system
    identitiy theory -- >function can be multiply realised
    behaviorism -->mental processes really exist, really cause behavior
  • Token- Materialism
    a function does not exists in a disembodied way, it needs a material realisation.
  • Complexity assumption
    complex things can be understood by breaking them down into their constituens
  • Theory Reduction
    Higher level theory deduced from a basic (lower level) theory plus bridge laws(connecting the theories)
  • Solutions failure classical reduction
    1. Autonomy (non-reduction) for higher levels. Functionalism. 2. Eliminativism (higher level theory abandoned) Churchland.
  • Elimination
    Replacing higher levels by lower level ones
  • Varieties of reduction
    1. Classical reduction. (theory reduction, getting a higher level theory from a lower level). 2. Non-reductive materialism, Autonomy of higher levels. 3. Eliminativism (Higher level is eliminated)
  • Demarcation Criterion
    A criterion separating rational science and pseudo-science. It belongs to the context of justification.
  • Logical postivism
    1920-1960. Empiricism but non-traditional. Language (propositions). Only statements that can be translated in direct sensory observations can be considered meaningful. Unverifiable items (God) are non-sense. Demarcation
  • Verification
    As long as the conditions can be specified to make a statement true, that statement is scientifically respectable. It is impossible to verify general laws, you can only confirm them
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The luminous room
light can't be electromagnetic radiation, churchland: " a failure of imagination"
connectionism (churchland)
Self-organizing networks of interconnected nodes (changing of weights underlies the responses)
Coupled co-evolving systems, developing over time. Smooth mutual adaptation. body mind and world part of a single system
Mental representations
mental state= refer to or stand for something else. Classical & connectionist have a very different view .
DST Dynamical system theorie 
cognition is a continuous and dynamic interaction with the enviroment. Not internal symbol manipulation. Tools for understanding the development on systems & their interaction across time
Problems; role of representations and the idea of organism & the enviroment as coupled systems
Brooks (IQ)
The roots of intelligence and the most important component from it is the ability to move around in a dynamic enviroment.
3 strategies for realizing some kind of compositionality in networks
1. construct networks that explicitly implement rules
2.realize functional compositionality
3.exploiting extern symbols.
conclusion: cognition requires complex representational structures
Difference classical (fodor) en connectionist aproach
Classical: discrete symbols. logical reasoning en sentences in head. inborn cognitive structure. (cartesian rationalism, descartes)
Connectionist: activation patterns, holistic neuron-like activation patterns
3 contenders for the true account of mind
1. Classical symbolic view. (turing machine)
2.Neural-network view (connectionist techniques)
3. Dynamic view (dynamical systems theory)
language/logic-based approach is dead on both counts. Integrated naturalist philosophy of mind. All observations are theory-laden
against folk-psychology-->elimination
against fodor --> alternative for CTM
Against autonomy
against LOT