Summary Understanding 9/11

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This is the summary of the book "Understanding 9/11". The author(s) of the book is/are Schanzer. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Understanding 9/11

  • 1 Understanding 9/11

  • Ground Zero as it is know afterwards:

    -site of tremendous heroism (first responders);

    -site of the most grivious attack in the history of the USA;

    -2.700 people were killed (mass murder);

    -now a site of commemoration (herdenking);

    -place of learning/place of renewal (vernieuwing);

    -Why took these events place and how we respond to it.

  • 1.1 What happened here?

  • When started the story of the 9/11 Attack?

    Feb 26 1993, first attack on the World Trade Centre.

  • Who was behind the attack in 1993?

    Seven Middle Eastern Men, followers of the Egyptian Omar Abdel-Rahman and the mastermind of the attack Ramzi Yousef (a nephew of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of many attacks and one of the masterminds of the 9/11 attack).

  • What was important for the FBI in the investigation in 1993?

    A vehicle identification number from a truck, lead to the New Jersey terrorist cell. 

  • How many of the terrorists were convicted?

    6 of 7 have been send life sentences in the USA (including Ramzi Yousef, who first fled the country, but was later apprehented (aangehouden).

  • Why gave the arrest in the first place a false sense of security?

    The group of men was not seen as part of an ideological, political, long term movement.

  • Sept 11 in New York, primary election to determine candidates to replace Mayor Giulani. About 50.000 persons were working in the Twin Towers. 08.46, American Flight 11 (that had left from Logan Airport in Boston to LA) into the North Tower (between 93-99 floor). A huge confusion in the media what was happening? Was it a small plane? 09.03 the second airplane (flight 175) crashes in the South Tower (shown on television), between floor 77-85. the third plain (reports, no video) flew in the Pentagon (flight 77 form Dulles Airport). Fighters were send in the air (with no clear instructions), Pres. Bush was in the Air with Airforce 1 (not known where?).  The South tower collapsed. Then a crash in Shanksville (Pennsylvania), flight United 93. Passengers have defended themselves and stormed into the cockpit, but were not able to take control. Finally the Nort tower collapsed. It took al together 102 minutes. 3 days later Pres. Bush was at Ground Zero: The world can hear you and the people who were knocked down these buildings, they're going to be hear from all of us soon.

  • What were the following facts on 9/11 (planes and collapsing of the towers)?

    -American Flight 11 crashes into the  WTC, North tower;

    -United Flight 175 crashes into the WTC, South tower;

    -American Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon;

    -WTC, South tower collapses;

    -United Flight 93, crashes in Shanksville (Pennsylvania);

    -WTC, North tower collapses.

  • 1.2 No place for Conspiracy theories

  • What is a conspiracy theory?

    There is no standard definition. In the view of Prof. Schanzer it is a narrative to explain a historical event that is contrary to the narrative that has been established by the facts and it usually attributes blame for a certain incident to something that happened in secret, usually involving the government in conjunction (samen met) with other secret nefarious (verfoeilijke) actors and they place blame on this cabal (stennis) between the government and other actors for some sort of historical incident.

  • What is the name of the document in which the narrative of 9/11 is established?

    The 9/11 Comission Report (Final Report of the National Commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States) of 2004.

  • Zogby Poll (2006)

    The US government and the 9/11 Commission...

    48% are not covering up; 42% are covering up and 10% are not sure.

    World Public Opinion Poll (2008) outside the USA:

    Who do you think was behind the 9/11 attacks?

    Al-Qaeda 46%; US government 15%; Israel 7%;  other 7% and don't know 25%.

    Poll under Muslims (2011)

    Majority don't believe Arabs carried out the 9/11 attacks.

     

    Support for the official narrative is actually degrading from 2006 till 2011.

  • Why do the conspiracy theories persist?

    They exist in general because for individuals, the official narrative does not match with their vision of the world

  • Reasons for the conspiracy theories:

    -9/11 was the first huge historical event , covered in real time, during the internet age (video's, quotes, loose exchange documentary);

    -it is very easy to proliferate (aanwakkeren) these alternative narratives to anyone in the world with an internet connection;

    -(probably the most important) in the internet and social media age everyone is commentator, and it is very difficult for individuals to weigh what is a credible source or what is credible information. Conspiracy theories can look more credible than they really are.

     

    And specially:

    -Opposition to both the United States role in the world and also specific US policy (Iraq, drones, ...).

    -Anti-Semitism, Anti-Zionism

    -Denial (Islam is peace)

    -Distrust in Government (graphic shows a decrease in 20 years; displaces  or draws scepticism to the official narrative; immediate aftermath tot the 9/11 attack - people want government to protect and want to trust the government; Government secrecy - they have a lot to hide; breeds support for conspiracy).

     

    Conspiracy theories according to Prof Schanzer:

    -contrary to the facts

    -contrary to science

    -USA is not able to keep the facts secret.

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Who originally gave the speech that contains the words, “We will make the necessary sacrifices, direct the necessary resources, and use American might, technology, and ingenuity (vernunft) to secure our homeland. But most of all, we will rely on America's courage and faith, knowing that our country has been a source of progress for humankind for over two centuries; knowing that peace-loving people around the world will join with us to eliminate this evil that plagues us all.”?

US Senator Jane Carnahan.

What was an important change for the WTC?

The man on wire (Philippe Petit) on 07 Aug 1974. He walked on a wire from one tower to another. You need dreams to live. The dream was as big as the towers.

Who was the architect of the WTC?

Minoru Yamasaki (a Japanese-American).

What is the name of the document in which the narrative of 9/11 is established?

The 9/11 Comission Report (Final Report of the National Commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States) of 2004.

Who was behind the attack in 1993?

Seven Middle Eastern Men, followers of the Egyptian Omar Abdel-Rahman and the mastermind of the attack Ramzi Yousef (a nephew of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of many attacks and one of the masterminds of the 9/11 attack).

Why was the Tomahawk missile attack on the training camps in Afghanistan considered unsuccesful?
*The attack killed civilians;
*Ther attack was not successful in killing Bin Laden;
*It was perceived that the President used the attacks to defer attention form his personal problems (Monica Lewinsky)
What were the reasons that led to the lack of counterterrorism preparation within the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau if Investigation?
Decentralized organization; intelligence collection and analysis.
How much was the increase of money for the counter terrorism activities from 1995 till 2000
$5,7 billion to $11,1 billion
What was the name of the National Coordinator for counter-terrorism?
Richard Clarke
In 1995 Pres Clinton initiated the Presidential Policy directive number 39. Which statement was part and which was not part of the directive?
Part: reducing vulnerabilities; responding counter-terrorism; deterring terrorism.
Not: protection against unconventional threats.