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Summary - Understanding contemporary China
1992: "It doen not matter whether the cat is black or white, so long as it can catch mice". Signalling economic reforms that would take place along the coast -> Modern buildings, highways, shopping centres etc. Enormous contrast between urban and rural life.
Later: Road improvement program reduced isolation. Traditional villages of minorities have become popular for tours. Imroved roads and new airports have made shopping centres and the like possible and profitable. Q: is the economic development happening too fast?
New concerns: bullet trains, high-speed trains reducing travel time. Collition of two bullet trains in 2011 rose concerns of safety, high energy consumption and low profitability.
Today: China has the world's fastest growing economy, a fifth of the world's population and escalating of travel and trade. There are 65 million Chinese living overseas. China still claims Taiwan which wants to be independent. Chinese communities overseas still shares attitudes and habits.
There is no alphabet but signs representing one word. The communists created 2,200 standardized signs to be used by schools and newspapers as a way of spreading literacy. Chinese write first their family name and then the personal name.
Pinyin: developed in the 1930's, a system of writing Chinese with roman characters.
In 1992, Deng Xiaoping gave a speech in which he said: 'It doesn't matter whether the cat is black or white, so lang as it can catch mice'. What did this signal?That the economic reforms which had before been limited to special zones along China's coast would now be allowed throughout China; modern buildings, highways and shopping centres were created, but the contrast between cities and rural villages became stark.
wat zijn steekwoorden bij Qin Shi Huangdi?
- eerste keizer van China
- aanleg grote muur
- bouwen terracottaleger
- inspirator voor Mao ( om zeer strenge law en order beleid)
Tussen 1988 en 2010 is er met dan 3 miljoen kilometer aan weg bijgemaakt
2e grootste economie van de wereld (Amerika nog op 1) maar het heeft wel 4x zoveel inwoners dus op ranking per capita basis is het nog maar 126e in de wereld. Tussen 2020-2030 zal het DGP van China Amerika voorbij gaan. Toch zal de GDP per capita nog maar 1/4 of 1/5 zijn van dat van Amerika
In 2002 the contrast between cities and rural villages had decreased. What was the main reason for this?The reforms expanded to every corner of the nation. Because of the road improvement program, the peasants which were once isolated could get access to modern urban commerce.
China heeft naast zijn eigen inwoners ook nog 65 miljoen chinezen die overal in de wereld wonen. Deze mensen investeren ook weer direct of indirect in de Chinese economie en zijn 1,34 miljard inwoners.
China heeft geen alfabet maar tekens die voor een bepaald woord staan. Alleen de rijken hadden de tijd om deze taal zich eigen te maken, toen de communisten kwamen hebben deze een lijst met 2200 simpelere tekens gemaakt welke nu worden gebruikt in de educatie wereld en kranten etc. Toen de Westerlingen echter kwamen in de 19e eeuw moest het weer worden vertaald in het romeinse alfabet. Later werd er rond 1930 Pinyin bedacht, in 1958 was dit ook voor de Chinese republiek opgepikt voor officiële publicaties.
1839Begin eerste opiumoorlog
China is developing fast, some wonder if it is happening too fast. Name three downsides of the developments.For example:
- Decline of traditional culture and family and community life
- Safety concerns (after the crash of two bullet trains)
Rond 1700 waren er plekken in China redelijk urbaan in vergelijking met de rest van de wereld.
1911Founding of republic
Nowadays, China has the world's fastest-growing economy, a fifth of the world's population and escalating trade and travel through its borders.
1919Founding May Fourth movement
China still regards the more than 65 million Chinese living overseas as part of China. The richest of these families often invest a lot of money directly or indirectly in China and the Pacific Rim, including the coast of North America. This links China to the Americas, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia.
1921oprichting communitische partij
What is the main reason that China (a communist country) can immerse in free markets the way it does?Many Chinese people are living overseas and China's prosperity has depended upon the investment of overseas Chinese; their prosperity in turn depends on China's prosperity. This interdependency explain why China can immerse in the free markets; those markets are embedded in the social structure of the widely dispersed Chinese community.
About the Chinese language:
- It has no alphabet
- It is thousands of years old
- The written language consists of single characters that represent entire words
1931Japan bezet mansjoerije: begin tweede Chinees-Japanse oorlog
Development of the Chinese language:People had to memorize the individual characters; only educated scholar-officials and families of merchants in cities were in the position to devote time to memorize the characters and create them.
After the communists came to power, 2200 simplified characters were created which were taught to schoolchildren and used in newspapers to reduce illiteracy.
In the 19th century Westeners arrived and the Chinese words had to be transliterated into their Roman alphabet. The Wade-Giles system was devised to do just that.
In the 1930s a new system was developed: pinyin, which came closer to replicating the sounds of the words as they are pronounced in the Mandarin Chinese used around Beijing. This sytem is now widely used.
Chinese words often usually have only one or two syllables. when there are two, they are given equal emphasis in pronounciation.
1937Japan valt China aan : de verkrachting van Nanking
Chinese give their family name first and then their personal name.
1945-1949Burgeroorlog tussen nationalisten en communisten
1949Oprichting People's Republic of China door Mao.
1950collectivisation van landbouw
1953Start eerste vijf-jarenplan
1958great leap forward
1966-1976de culturele revolutie
1976Mao overlijdt en arrestatie gang of four
1978Eerste economische hervormingen door Deng Xiaoping
1992UItbreiding economische hervormingen
1989neerslaan opstand Tiananmenplein
Latest added flashcards
- protect british living in china
- limit taxation t oa fair and regular tariff at custom halls of 5 reaty ports
decentralising the economy and opening the country to international trade. --> Open door policy
1989, after he and other Party elders ordered the use of military force to clear Tiananmen Square.
- schools closer, workers stealing, historic monuments and buildings destroyed, production grind to a halt
- new industry &agricultural capabilities
- enlarged local milities
agticulture fell dissastrously:
- bad weather
diversion of labour to other projects
increased export of grain
layoff of skilled servants