Summary Understanding contemporary China

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ISBN-10 1588268446 ISBN-13 9781588268440
570 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Understanding contemporary China". The author(s) of the book is/are Robert E Gamer. The ISBN of the book is 9781588268440 or 1588268446. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Understanding contemporary China

  • 1 Introduction

  • 1992: "It doen not matter whether the cat is black or white, so long as it can catch mice". Signalling economic reforms that would take place along the coast -> Modern buildings, highways, shopping centres etc. Enormous contrast between urban and rural life.

     Later: Road improvement program reduced isolation. Traditional villages of minorities have become popular for tours. Imroved roads and new airports have made shopping centres and the like possible and profitable. Q: is the economic development happening too fast?

    New concerns: bullet trains, high-speed trains reducing travel time. Collition of two bullet trains in 2011 rose concerns of safety, high energy consumption and low profitability.

    Today: China has the world's fastest growing economy, a fifth of the world's population and escalating of travel and trade. There are 65 million Chinese living overseas. China still claims Taiwan which wants to be independent. Chinese communities overseas still shares attitudes and habits. 
    There is no alphabet but signs representing one word. The communists created 2,200 standardized signs to be used by schools and newspapers as a way of spreading literacy. Chinese write first their family name and then the personal name.

    Pinyin: developed in the 1930's, a system of writing Chinese with roman characters. 

  • In 1992, Deng Xiaoping gave a speech in which he said: 'It doesn't matter whether the cat is black or white, so lang as it can catch mice'.  What did this signal?
    That the economic reforms which had before been limited to special zones along China's coast would now be allowed throughout China; modern buildings, highways and shopping centres were created, but the contrast between cities and rural villages became stark.
  • wat zijn steekwoorden bij Qin Shi Huangdi?

    - eerste keizer van China

    - aanleg grote muur

    - bouwen terracottaleger

    - inspirator voor Mao ( om zeer strenge law en order beleid)

  • Tussen 1988 en 2010 is er met dan 3 miljoen kilometer aan weg bijgemaakt
    2e grootste economie van de wereld (Amerika nog op 1) maar het heeft wel 4x zoveel inwoners dus op ranking per capita basis is het nog maar 126e in de wereld. Tussen 2020-2030 zal het DGP van China Amerika voorbij gaan. Toch zal de GDP per capita nog maar 1/4 of 1/5 zijn van dat van Amerika
  • In 2002 the contrast between cities and rural villages had decreased. What was the main reason for this?
    The reforms expanded to every corner of the nation. Because of the road improvement program, the peasants which were once isolated could get access to modern urban commerce. 
  • China heeft naast zijn eigen inwoners ook nog 65 miljoen chinezen die overal in de wereld wonen. Deze mensen investeren ook weer direct of indirect in de Chinese economie en zijn 1,34 miljard inwoners.
    China heeft geen alfabet maar tekens die voor een bepaald woord staan. Alleen de rijken hadden de tijd om deze taal zich eigen te maken, toen de communisten kwamen hebben deze een lijst met 2200 simpelere tekens gemaakt welke nu worden gebruikt in de educatie wereld en kranten etc. Toen de Westerlingen echter kwamen in de 19e eeuw moest het weer worden vertaald in het romeinse alfabet. Later werd er rond 1930 Pinyin bedacht, in 1958 was dit ook voor de Chinese republiek opgepikt voor officiële publicaties.  



  • 1839

    Begin eerste opiumoorlog
  • China is developing fast, some wonder if it is happening too fast. Name three downsides of the developments.
    For example: 
    • Decline of traditional culture and family and community life
    • Pollution
    • Safety concerns (after the crash of two bullet trains)
  • Rond 1700 waren er plekken in China redelijk urbaan in vergelijking met de rest van de wereld.
  • 1911
    Founding of republic
  • Nowadays, China has the world's fastest-growing economy, a fifth of the world's population and escalating trade and travel through its borders. 
  • 1919
    Founding May Fourth movement
  • China still regards the more than 65 million Chinese living overseas as part of China. The richest of these families often invest a lot of money directly or indirectly in China and the Pacific Rim, including the coast of North America. This links China to the Americas, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. 
  • 1921
    oprichting communitische partij
  • What is the main reason that China (a communist country) can immerse in free markets the way it does?
    Many Chinese people are living overseas and China's prosperity has depended upon the investment of overseas Chinese; their prosperity in turn depends on China's prosperity. This interdependency explain why China can immerse in the free markets; those markets are embedded in the social structure of the widely dispersed Chinese community.
  • 1927
    KMT-communist split
  • About the Chinese language:
    • It has no alphabet
    • It is thousands of years old
    • The written language consists of single characters that represent entire words
  • 1931
    Japan bezet mansjoerije: begin tweede Chinees-Japanse oorlog

  • Development of the Chinese language:People had to memorize the individual characters; only educated scholar-officials and families of merchants in cities were in the position to devote time to memorize the characters and create them.

    After the communists came to power, 2200 simplified characters were created which were taught to schoolchildren and used in newspapers to reduce illiteracy. 

    In the 19th century Westeners arrived and the Chinese words had to be transliterated into their Roman alphabet. The Wade-Giles system was devised to do just that. 

    In the 1930s a new system was developed: pinyin, which came closer to replicating the sounds of the words as they are pronounced in the Mandarin Chinese used around Beijing. This sytem is now widely used. 
  • 1934
    Lange mars
  • Chinese words often usually have only one or two syllables. when there are two, they are given equal emphasis in pronounciation. 
  • 1937
    Japan valt China aan : de verkrachting van Nanking
  • Chinese give their family name first and then their personal name. 
  • 1945-1949
    Burgeroorlog tussen nationalisten en communisten
  • 1949

    Oprichting People's Republic of China door Mao.
  • 1950
    collectivisation van landbouw
  • 1953
    Start eerste vijf-jarenplan
  • 1958
    great leap forward
  • 1966-1976
    de culturele revolutie
  • 1976
    Mao overlijdt en arrestatie gang of four
  • 1978
    Eerste economische hervormingen door Deng Xiaoping
  • 1992

    UItbreiding economische hervormingen
  • 1989
    neerslaan opstand Tiananmenplein
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1967-1976 restore order
.
Dynasties
Xia
Shang
Zhou
Qin
Han
3 kingdoms
8 dynasties
Sui
Tang
5 dynasties
Qidan
Jin
Song
Yuan
Ming
Qing
Republic
Peoples republic
1842
treaty of Nanjing- basis of relations with all foreign powers
- protect british living in china
- limit taxation t oa fair and regular tariff at custom halls of 5 reaty ports
1978
Deng Xiaoping Four Modernisations" of agriculture, industry, national defence, and science and technology.

decentralising the economy and opening the country to international trade. --> Open door policy



1989, after he and other Party elders ordered the use of military force to clear Tiananmen Square. 
effects mao
encourage limiting capitalism, return land to peasants, help small communities develop consumer industries
1976
Zhou Enlai and Ma0 died. it's succesor Hua Guofeng arrested the gang of four but his power was overtaken by Deng Xiaoping
1966 great proletarian cultural revolution
protests universities and students calling themselves red guards. 
- schools closer, workers stealing, historic monuments and buildings destroyed, production grind to a halt
1965
PLA removed ranks
1959
Mao removed as head of state, land redistributed, inefficient state enterprises closed, rural markets reopened. Soviet Union warming relations with india and indonesia and cut off aid to china.
effects great leap
- much new land for agriculture
- new industry &agricultural capabilities
- enlarged local milities

agticulture fell dissastrously:
- bad weather 
diversion of labour to other projects
increased export of grain
layoff of skilled servants
other mismanagement