Summary Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition

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ISBN-10 1118804708 ISBN-13 9781118804704
360 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition". The author(s) of the book is/are Johnmarshall Reeve. The ISBN of the book is 9781118804704 or 1118804708. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 6th Edition

  • 1 Introduction

  • Once formed, theories generate predictions (i.e., hypotheses) about where a motivational state comes from, what it leads to (e.g., behavioral change), and how, when, and under what conditions it might change.
  • Why does behavior vary in its intensity?
    •  a person can be actively engaged at one time, yet that same person can be passive and listless at another time
    • Within the individual, motivation varies. When motivation varies, behavior also varies.
  • Subject matter
    • The study of motivation concerns those internal processes that give behavior its energy, direction, and persistence.
      • Energy= behavior has strength
      • Direction = behavior had purpose
      • Persistence = behavoir has endurance 
    • External events and social contexts are important too, because they act as antecedents to motives. 
  • Internal Motives
      • Needs
      • Cognitions, mental events
      • Emotions
  • Needs
    Are conditions within the individual that are essential and necessary for the maintenance of life and for the nurturance of growth and well-being. Needs serve the organism by generating wants that motivate necessary behaviors and generation a deep sense of need satisfaction from doing so.
  • Cognitions
    Refer to mental events. Cognitive sources of motivation involve the person’s way of thinking.
  • Emotions
    Are coordinated feeling-arousal-purposive-expressive reactions to significant events in life that allow us to react adaptively to events.
  • External events
    External events are environmental, social and cultural offerings that affect a person’s internal motives. Environmental events include attractive or unattractive stimuli. Social context are general situations, such as a classroom, workplace or the culture at large.
  • Five ways that you can know motivation when you see it
    Behavior, engagement, psychophysiology, brain activations and self-report
  • Behavior effort that indicate motivation
    Persistence, latency, choice, probability of response,
    facial expressions and bodily gestures
  • Effort
    Exertion put forth during a task. Percentage of total capacity used.
  • Persistance
    Time between when a behavior first starts until it ends
  • Latency
    Duration of time a person waits to get started on a task upon first being given an oppurtunity to do so
  • Choice
    When presented with two or more courses of action, preferring one course of action over the other
  • Probability of response
    Number of occasions that the person enacts a particular goal-directed response given the total number of oppurtunities to do so.
  • Facial expressions
    Facial movements
  • Bodily gestures
    Bodily gestures, learning forward, changing posture
  • Engagement refers to
    How actively involved a person is in a task
  • Engagement is a multidimensional construct that consists of the four distinct
    1. Behavior
    2. Emotion
    3. Cognition
    4. Agency
  • Engagement:
    • Behavior: how effortfully
    • Emotional: presence of positive emotions during task
    • Cognitive: how strategically the person attempts to process information 
    • Agentic: extent of proactive and constructive contribution
  • Psychophysiology
    Psychophysiology is the study of the interaction between bodily and mental states. There are five psychophysiological expressions of motivation and emotion: hormonal activity, cardiovascular activity, ocular activity, electrodermal activity and skeletal activity.
  • Hormonal activity
    Chemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines
  • Cardiovascular activity
     Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels
  • Ocular activity
    Eye behavior
  • Electrodermal activity
    Electrical changes on the surface of the skin
  • Sketetal activity
    Activity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion), bodily gestures, or shifting one’s weight from side to side during a boring hallway conversation (desire to leave).
  • Self-report 
     what people say their motives are sometimes are not what people’s behavior, engagement, psychophysiology, and brain activations suggest their motives are.
  • Understanding motivation
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Compassion
A complex emotion that can be both positive and negative; it is generally thought of as positive but can really be felt as negative (especially when paired with both suffering AND a heartwarming experience).
Empathy
Triggered by another person’s emotional state or situational circumstances and involves the observer feeling what the actor is feeling. The essence lies in feeling what the other is feeling and experiencing an “other-oriented” desire for the other to feel better.
Schadenfreude
Taking pleasure at the misfortune of others. When others suffer a setback, feeling schadenfreude will result in a smile and a little bit of pleasure from the other person's suffering. This normally arises when the person is disliked, deserving the misfortune, or is perceived to be immoral.
Hope
Arises with a wish that a desired goal might be attained; rooted in the desire for some future outcome that is personally relevant for the person (i.e. an attractive goal; “I hope I get into college”).
Regret
Different from disappointment in that the person believes he/she could have acted differently or could have made a different choice but did not. Arises with the “nonoccurrence” of a desired outcome caused by a wrong behaviour or a bad choice
Disappointment
Arises when comparing the actual outcome once received vs. an imagined better outcome that might have resulted from the same action or the same choice (e.g. “I really missed out on that Bono concert man…”)
Gratitude
A positive emotion that arises after receiving something of value (gift, help, assistance, guidance) from another person. This value needs to be voluntarily given. They can also influence indebtedness (negative feeling).
Envy
An unpleasant emotion characterized by longing, dissatisfaction, and the impression of inferiority. It is caused by the perceived ‘good fortune’ of others. Such feelings arise when an individual believes that another person has something that he or she wants but does not yet, or even will, have.
Triumph
An emotional reaction that follows victory in a competitive situation.
Hubristic pride
Involves a satisfaction with the self in general