Summary Understanding the basic dynamics of organizing / druk Heruitgave

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ISBN-10 9059726863 ISBN-13 9789059726864
220 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Understanding the basic dynamics of organizing / druk Heruitgave ". The author(s) of the book is/are Peter Peverelli. The ISBN of the book is 9789059726864 or 9059726863. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Understanding the basic dynamics of organizing / druk Heruitgave

  • 1 Introduction + basis aspects of organizing

  • Wat is organization theory?

    Een basis studie die de manieren onderzoekt waarop menselijke actroren zichzelf in groepen organiseren met verschillende graden van complexiteit.

    It is one approach to understanding organizational dynamics.

  • Wat is het basis idee in het boek understanding the basic dynamics of organizing?
    Dit is het perspectief dat menselijke organisatie een continue proces van voortdurende interactie tussen mensen *(actoren) in hun missie om de wereld te kunnen begrijpen. Als resultaat van dit proces zullen actoren die regelmatig interacteren omtrent een bepaald thema, zich geleidelijk waarnemen als een groep en zullen ook zo door anderen worden waargenomen.
  • De leden van elke specifieke groep hebben een gedeelde visie op realiteit, in elk geval in relatie tot het deel van de realiteit gebonden aan hun gedeelde taken. Deze gedeelde realiteit zal vaststellen welke acties zij zullen ondervinden.
  • Wat betekent 'Multiple Group Membership: Multiple inclusion'?
    Dit betekent dat mensen in meerdere groepen/netwerken verweven kunnen zijn (bijv. sportclub, vu, vrienden)
  • Wat is het fenomeen 'reification of fixation'? (Het voornaamste probleem van organisationele problemen)
    Vaak leidt het mechanisme hoe mensen hun definities vormgeven, ook tot het geloven van de gedeelde realiteit met de groep tot de enige en echte waarheid/realiteit. Gevolg is dat zij minder vatbaar zijn voor andere realiteiten en deze evt. kunnen blokkeren. Bijv 'We don't deal with people like that'.
  • Equivocality = dubbelzinnigheid/many different ways to look at the world
  • Hoofddorp, what steps/aspects can you distinguish in this process?

    1 Chaos (individuals/small groups, mutually disconnected)
    2 Some people start talking to others: some of them make sense to others. This can lead to a group of people with a shared belief.
    3 The main theme of each groups affects the group behaviour.

  • What is a configuration?
    A group with a shared belief.
  • What is sensemaking?
    When actors in the course of social interaction will exchange ideas. Tey will gradually build up u view on the nature of the problem and the best way out of the predicament.
  • Configurations emerge from ongoing social interaction. When that interaction takes plce long enough, the members of the group will become aware that they are a group, and then main theme that formed the group will be perceived as a fct.
  • When you are in a group, you will become aware of the existence of other groups with conflicting themes. What does this group membership produces?
    A social identity, a belief about 'what are we and what are we not'. What are we = group cohesion. What are we not results in groups creating psysical distance from one another.
  • Why organization theory?

    Organizing is what people do, it is the basic process governing each and every aspect of human society. One cannot organize. In order to manage, man has to cope with organizing processes. The better we understand the processes of human organizing, the better we can manage our organizations.

  • Whenever a relationship of deterministic influence between two events can't be resolved into  simple function of one but instead must be treated as a joint function, as a mutual or reciprocal influence, we have a case of interaction. (McCall & Simmons)
  • What is social interaction?
    An endless repetition of double interacts between actions. In the course of social interaction, actors will adjust their behaviour to their fellow actors, resulting in coupled baviour (roles, adapting, synchronising, etc.)
  • Describe thr 4 doublr interacts construct relations:
    Act     Interact     Double interact          Type of influence
    A         A                   A                                       Uniformity
    A         A                   B                                        Anticonformity
    A         B                   A                                        Independence
    A         B                    B                                       Conformity
  • Give an example of conformity?
    Grace: let's go to the cinema
    Tom: Let's go out for dinner instead
    Grace: Good idea, let's go to restaurant X

    Grace conforms to Tom. (Only after A's reactions to B's reaction to A's original statement, we can determine their relationship)
  • Give an example of anticonformity?
    Two colleague sales managers enter the office simultaneously:
    John: I will work on the Semtex
    Lin: I was going to do the same
    John: Fine do it, that gives me more time for the Biz account.
  • Sensemaking (K. Weick)
    Social cognitive structures

    Sensemaking is virtueel gelijk aan organizing. Organizing process heeft 2 aspecten:
    Social element: the actors
    Cognitive element: their sensemaking

    Gedurende de sensemaking doen zich groepen/actoren aan. Deze grepen worden door Weick social structures genoemd. Sensemaking is het basis proces van actoren die geleidelijk  complexe sociale structuren vormen.

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 1: grounded in identity construction?

    Actors develop ideas about their role in a situation vis a vis others. This perceived role decides activities.
    Perceived role + linked activities = identity
    Groups of actors (e.g. organizations) also construct identities. (For ex. I'm glad we take the train back)

    (Sensemaking is de uitwisseling van percepties door sociale interactie. Actoren ontwikkelen geleidelijk hun rol in de situatie t.o.v. anderen. Deze rol is beslissend voor de acties dies een actor zal ondernemen. De waargenomen rol + gelinkte activiteiten = identiteit.

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 2: retrospective?

    Actors act in ways that have proven successful in the past. Actors acts in the way 'we always do things' (construction rules).
    In case of a (perceived) change in the environment, actors need more effort to make sense of the new environment. Even then they will scan past experience for solutions. (For ex. in situations likes this the NS will always provide a bus)

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 3: enactive of sensible environments?

    Actors construct organizations + environment in ongoing interaction. Actors perceive (construct) a boundary between organization and environment. Actors within a group construct their organization and its environment partly on their interaction with other groups (other inclusions). Groups of actors construct groups of groups of actions (even larger social structures)

    (In het voortdurende organizing process contrueren actoren gelijktijdig de organisaties en hun omgeving, deze zijn co-genetic.)

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 4: a social process?

    Sensemaking is a social process. It requires a minimal social situation. Human thinking and social functioning are reliant on social relations, which are a result of social interaction.

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 5: ongoing process?

    Organizing = sensemaking (= interacting)
    One cannot organize (make sense, interact, behave, communicate). Sensemaking never starts or stops, it is an ongoing process.

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 6: focused on and by extracted cues?

    Actors are confrontated with more information than they can cope with. Actors only notice a limited number of cues. Actors construct their view on reality from these cues. Chunks of information streams are combined by punctuation (leestekens?) or bracketing (reeksopnames?).
    This reduction of equivocality is funtional (actors are unable to act without it) and simultaneously dysfunctional (it will easily discards useable ideas as 'untrue', 'inefficient' etc.)

  • Volgens Weick kent sensemaking 7 aspecten. What is sensemaking 7: driven by plausibility rather tham accuracy?

    Actors have a propensity (neiging) to minimize effort. They look for what is workable/plausible/satisficing (once you know the best way out, there is no need to think about it more). Once found, no alternatives are evaluated, until changes in the environment call for heightened sensemaking. Danger: once actors believe they 'know' something, they tend to become less open to alternatives.

  • What is meant with: sensemaking assembly (monteren)/construction (creeren) rules?

    Actors develop a set of rules for sensemaking in ongoing social interaction. As sensemaking equals organizing, these rules are simultaneously rules for constructing social cognitive structures (configuration, space).
    Weick: assembly rules (procedures, instructions or guides that members use to mobilize several double interacts into larger processes. For ex. effort, reward, obligation)
    Textbook: construction rules (if you do not know a way out, open your senses for the suggestions by others)

  • What is the stories/narratives/discourses consequence of sensemaking?
    A story is one of the basic means of himans to organize events and facts in such a way that they make sense; stories are sensemaking devices.
    Story = sequence of events, connected by a plot.
    Stories can be regarded as the carriers of the cognitive element of social cognitive structures.
  • Organizing = story telling
    Organization = story
    Organization research = narrative analysis
  • Concatenations (aaneenschakelingen) of double interacts produces social cognitive structures. This is a result (not purpose) of organizing processes. Social element: who does what with whom. Cognitive element: shared values, rituals etc.
  • Communication between actors contains information about the content (cognitive) as well as information about the relationship between the actors (social). (Watzlawick?)
  • Interaction -> adapt to each other -> social interaction
    (Sociale interactie begint met bijna 100% inhoudsbetekenis. Pas als de actor aan de relatie bouwt, verschijnt de relationele betekenis. Na ontwikkeling zijn beide aspecten ongeveer even belangrijk). (watzlawick, te vergelijken met Weick's double interact)

  • What is a (social cognitive) configuration?
    Smallest organizational structure. Definition: a relatively small group of actors who frequently interact about a specific topic.
  • What is cognitive space?
    Any aggregate (verzameling) of actors who share certain cognitive matter. Configuration = smallest cognitive space.
  • What is the dual nature (dubbele aard) of cognitive space?
    It provides space required for organizing processes. It creates a reduction of equivocality which makes it more difficult to take account of what has been left out.
  • Describe the constructed character of cognitive space:
    It does not exist outsite its own social context. It is perceived by actors who base (part of) their actions on the cognitive element.
  • Describe the scale of organizational structures.
    See image
  • What is (multiple) inclusion?

    Actors are included in a (theoretically indefinite) number of cognitive spaces. Multiple inclusion is the source of organizational complexity and is regarded as the motor of organizational change.

  • What can happen during social integration?
    During social integration in one space, actors can bring in cognitive matter from other spaces trhrough their inclusions.
  • Show (multiple) inclusions
    See image.
  • Give a casus example of a (multiple) inclusion:
    Think about Philips (see image)
  • Organizational theory beschouwt de dingen die actoren doen als dingen die worden vastgesteld door de sociale context (niet als resultaat van vrije wil)
  • Hoe beschouwt Weick het sensemaking process?
    Als cyclisch, als een ketting van dubbele interacties, waarin een constructie van de realiteit en gerelateerde gedragspatronen geleidelijk vorm aannemen.
  • Het koppelen van gedrag is niet hetzelfde als cooperatie.
  • Weick waarschuwt dat een organisatie eigenlijk een illusie is (product van het proces van reductie van equivocality). Daarom stelt hij voor dat we zouden moeten spreken van het 'organiseren' i.p.v. organisaties. Wat bestaat volgens Weick wel echt? Het proces van voortdurende sociale interactie tussen actoren (= organiseren). Organisaties + omgeving zijn geen entiteiten, maar het zijn processen vastgesteld gedurende voortdurende sociale interactie.
  • Wat is de enactment theory?
    Om het leven in het algemeen en de manier waarop individuen sociale groepen vormen. Individuen/groepen zijn continu in het proces van zelf-formatie, met actoren die zichzelf vormen tot sociale groepen.
  • Op welke 2 manieren doet groepsformatie zich voor?
    1 Ze bewerkstelligen stabiliteit door herhaalde cirkels van sociale interactie, waar elke cirkel het construct van de realiteit verder versterkt.
    2 Het wordt bereikt door de ontwikkeling van regels en gepast gedrag.
  • Hoe kan enactment gezien worden?
    Als her proces waarbij mensen continuiteit en coordinatie bereiken. Dit proces vereist regels en rollen, zodat mensen activiteiten kunnen coordineren.
  • What are the 5 basic axioms (onbewezen stellingen) about human communication in Watzlawicks Model of Communication?

    1 One cannot not communicatie
    2 Messages have both content and relational meaning (is stukje 100%)
    3 The meaning of messages depends on its punctuation
    4 Messages include both digital and analogic coding (digital = random, analogisch = bijv. non-verbaal)
    5 A transaction/relation is either symmetrical or complementary (symmetrisch = gelijkwaardig bijv. 2 vrienden). Competitive (dominant), submissive (onderdanig), dyadic (balans), complementary (verschillend tov elkaar, bijv. manager-advisor, boss-employee)

  • Hoe omschrijft Weick en hoe omschrijft Watzlawick 'punctuation'?
    Weick: het proces van het reduceren van een continue stroom van data in betekenisvolle stukjes
    Watzalawick: Proces van het verdelen en het organiseren van interacties in betekenisvolle patronen
  • Welke 3 soorten narratives zijn er?
    1 Antenarrative (onsamenhangend/ongeplot)
    2 Story (verklaring van incidenten etc. zoals ze gebeurd zijn).
    3 Narrative (evenementen in volgorde, geplot/ontworpen en dus een grotere samenhang)
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