Summary Urology/Sexually transmitted diseases

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Summary - Urology/Sexually transmitted diseases

  • 1 Urology/Sexually transmitted diseases

  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection, explanation
    common infections that affect the bladder, kidneys and the tubes connected to them 
  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection
    common infections that affect the bladder, kidneys and the tubes connected to them 
  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection, underlying cause
    bacteria. But enhanced by kidney  stones, contraceptive diaphragm, condoms coated in spermicide or diabetes 
  • Cause bacterial (urinary tract) infection
    bacteria. But enhanced by kidney  stones, contraceptive diaphragm, condoms coated in spermicide or diabetes 
  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection, main symptoms
    pain or discomfort when peeing, pain low down in tummy, cloudy or bad-smelling urine
  • Symptoms Bacterial (urinary tract) infection
    pain or discomfort when peeing, pain low down in tummy, cloudy or bad-smelling urine
  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection, diagnostic methods
    urine test
  • Diagnostic methods bacterial/ urinary tract infection
    urine test
  • Bacterial (urinary tract) infection, therapy/treatment
    antibiotics
  • Treatment bacterial/ urinary tract infection
    antibiotics
  • Urinary tract infection/cystitis, explanation
    Inflammation of the bladder usually caused by a bladder infection 
  • Candidiasis
    vaginal thrush  is a common yeast infection that affects most women 
  • Urinary tract infection/cystitis, underlying cause
    infection
  • Cause candidiasis
    when the natural balance of micro-organisms in the vagina is disrupted and Candida multiples
  • Urinary tract infection/cystitis, main symptoms
    pain, burning or stinging when peeing. Urine that is dark, cloudy or strong smelling
  • Symptoms candidiasis
    itching and soreness around the entrance of the vagina. Vaginal discharge. Pain during sex. Stinging sensation when peeing 
  • Urinary tract infection/cystitis, diagnostic methods
    usually don’t need to see GP. Urine sample may be taken 
  • Diagnostic methods candidiasis
    symptoms
  • Urinary tract infection/cystitis, therapy/treatment
    pain killers, drink lots of water, avoid having sex 
  • Treatment candidiasis
    antifungal  medication
  • Candidiasis, explanation
    vaginal thrush  is a common yeast infection that affects most women 
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/Trachoma (with PID)
    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection. It is a bacterial infection. 
  • Candidiasis, underlying cause
    when the natural balance of micro-organisms in the vagina is disrupted and Candida multiples 
  • Cause Chlamydia trachomatis infection/Trachoma (with PID)
    Infection by sexual contact where it is transmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected individual.
  • Candidiasis, main symptoms
    itching and soreness around the entrance of the vagina. Vaginal discharge. Pain during sex. Stinging sensation when peeing 
  • Symptoms Chlamydia trachomatis infection /trachoma
    Pain when urinating, unusual discharge from the genitals
     
    Women may experience bleeding during periods or after or during sex
     
    men may have pain or swelling in the testes
  • Candidiasis, diagnostic methods
    symptoms 
  • Diagnostic methods chlamydia
    By a urine sample or by a cotton swab chlamydia may be diagnosed. The samples are analysed for the presence of the infectious bacteria.
  • Candidiasis, therapy/treatment
    antifungal  medication 
  • Treatment chlamydia
    Chlamydia can be effectively treated by use of antibiotics. The two most commonly prescribed antibiotics are azithromycin and doxycycline. These will cure more than 95% of all infections
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/Trachoma (with PID), explanation
    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection. It is a bacterial infection. 
  • Glomerulonephritis
    inflammation of the tiny filters in kidney
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/trachoma (with PID),  underlying cause
    Infection by sexual contact where it is transmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected individual. 
  • Cause glomerulonephritis
    infections, immune diseases such as lupus, vasculitis
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/Trachoma (with PID), main symptoms
    Pain when urinating, unusual discharge from the genitals

    Women may experience bleeding during periods or after or during sex

    men may have pain or swelling in the testes
  • Symptoms glomerulonephritis
    pink urine from red blood cells, foamy urine due to excess proteinm hypertension, edema 
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/Trachoma (with PID), diagnostic methods
    By a urine sample or by a cotton swab chlamydia may be diagnosed. The samples are analysed for the presence of the infectious bacteria.
  • Diagnostic method glomeruloneprhitis
    urine test, blood tests, imaging tests, kidney biopsy 
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection/trachoma (with PID), treatment/therapy
    Chlamydia can be effectively treated by use of antibiotics. The two most commonly prescribed antibiotics are azithromycin and doxycycline. These will cure more than 95% of all infections
  • Treatment glomeruloneprhitis
    Mild cases:
    -change diet
    -stop smoking
     
    Severe cases:
    -immunosuppressants
    -corticosteroids to reduce swelling
     
    Treat complications resulting from glomerulonephritis such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol 
  • Glomerulonephritis, explanation
    inflammation of the tiny filters in kidney 
  • Gonorrhoeal disease
    is a bacterial infection of the urogenital tract, rectum, pharynx and conjunctivae( mucous membrane that covers the and lines the inside of the eyelids 
  • Glomerulonephritis, underlying cause
    infections, immune diseases such as lupus, vasculitis
  • Cause gonorrhoeal disease
    spread by intimate physical contact.
    humans are the only host.
  • Glomerulonephritis, main symptoms
    pink urine from red blood cells, foamy urine due to excess proteinm hypertension, edema 
  • Symptoms gonorrhoeal disease
    in men: causing dysuria and/or urethral discharge
    complications leading to ascending infection involving epididymis or prostate leading to chronic infection. In MSM (men who have sex with men) rectal infection may cause proctitis with pain, discharge and itching
     
    in women: infection of endocervical canal → increased or unusual vaginal discharge, pelvic pain due to ascending infection, dysuria and intermenstrual bleeding
    can cause infertility, rectal infection, neonates of infected mother can have conjunctival infection
    complications: perihepatitis and Bartholin’s abscesses (accumulation of pus due to infected bartholin’s glands)
     
    disseminated GC can lead to arthritis 
  • Glomerulonephritis, diagnostic methods
    urine test, blood tests, imaging tests, kidney biopsy 
  • Diagnostic methods gonorrhoeal disease
    ●identified from infected areas by culture on selective media
    ●nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) using urine specimen are non-invasvie but can give false positive results.
    ●microscopy of gram-stained secretions
    ●in disseminated GC blood test can be used 
  • Glomerulonephritis, therapy/treatment
    Mild cases:
    • change diet
    • stop smoking

    Severe cases:
    • immunosuppressants
    • corticosteroids to reduce swelling

    Treat complications resulting from glomerulonephritis such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol
  • Treatment gonorrhoeal disease
    antibiotic choice influenced by travel history or details known from contact (some antibiotic-resistant strains can be present)
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Treatment ulcus pepticum (with perforation)
Medication to reduce stomach acidity, surgery to repair the perforation
Diagnostic methods ulcus pepticum (with perforation)
Mainly diagnosed based on symptoms. By use of an endoscopy  or x-ray the diagnosis may be confirmed
Sypmtoms Ulcus pepticum (with perforation)
-abdominal pain
-bloating
-nausea
-loss of aRppetite
vomiting of blood
Cause Ulcus pepticum (with perforation)
Chronic inflammation due to H. pylori can increase acidity and cause ulcers.
-stress
-diet
NSAIDS (painkillers)
Ulcus pepticum (with perforation)
Also known as peptic ulcer, is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or lower esophagus
Diagnostic methods renal tumour
Ultrasonography
CT scan
MRI (better than CT for tumour staging)
ESR is usually raised
Treatment renal tumour
Nephrectomy
Medorxyprogesterone acetate
Newer therapies
Antibodies
Symptoms renal tumour
Mostly asymptomatic
Haematuria, loin pain and a mass in the flank.
Malaise, anorexia and weight loss. Hypertension (due to secretion of renin by the tumour), anaemia. Pyrexia. 
Cause renal tumour
Male: Female   2:1
Adults
autosomal dominant disorder
bilateral renal cell carcinomas
Renal tumour
Renal tumours or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arise from proximal tubular epithelium.