Summary Week 1 - Wohlwill paper

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Summary - Week 1 - Wohlwill paper

  • 1 Wohlwill (1970) - (1)

  • Which three relationships elleborate Wohlwill in his paper?
    - environment is instrumental: it guides and constrains behavior
    - environment exert generalized effects in peoples life, like working day ritme as a function of climate
    - behavior is orientated towards environment: as a source of affect (for example tourism). 
  • Which three issues ment Wohlwill concerning environment as a source of affect?
    - affect is evoked by stimulus characteristics
    (like complexity, novelty, diversity, category)

    - environment determines approach, avoidance or aroused reactions
    (moving, migrating)

    - adaptation of the environment
  • Which important issues concerning environmental effects did Wohlwill not eleborate (4)?
    - Symbolic and cultural transformations
    - Social, economic and educational problems 
    - individual differences like sensation seeking, environment concerns ect
    - Attitude formation and attitude change regarding environmental problems
  • 2 Goldberg - The Automobile - 1969 (1)

  • Why did Goldberg started his study?
    He thought that designers like to think about the relationship between physical forms and social behavoir, based on intuitions, rather than on science.

    He think that this is often wrong because intuitions often do not work and the approach is shallow. Because it is based on observations rather than on the understanding of the social processes.
  • Which goal had Goldberg with his study? (4)
    Goldberg wanted to understand the relationship between
    social and
    cultural processes,
    behavioral problems and
    physical environments.
  • What was the problem?
    Adolescents (social development) had no place to go (no place), they like cars and therefore they take the road for social gatherings.
    This creates problems for others because of road blockings, noise annoyance ect. 
  • Which issues characterize social interaction and adolescence?
    - peer influences, sexual activity and symbolism, rivaltry, status
    - adolecents love cars 
    - care are suitable for competitions and have sexual symbolism

    Cars are a kind of medium for social expression of adolecents
  • Which were their cruising observations?
    Men:
    drive alone or in pairs
    have expensive altered cars
    places best suitable for displaying
    windows rolled down

    Women:
    not alone
    In pairs open to date, not with three (then teasing)
    windows closed.
  • Outcomes of the Goldberg study?
    - All activities take place in or around the car
    - cruising maximize visibility
    - cruising is selfsustaining, there are no other needs for entertainment

    - cruising can be seen as an effect upon the socio psychological structure.
    - Cruising can be seen as  a function of social gathering which include factors like sexual activity, status, competiton and rivaltery and as a mechanism for a mating pattern.
    - Cars are mediums for social expression
  • What are the unfullfilled premises of the Goldberg study?
    - The didn't give the solution, after analysing the phenomena
    - A promised publication never appeared.
  • 3 Gosling et al - Room with a cue - 2002 - personality judgements based on bedrooms and offices (1)

  • What  was the general research question of the Gosling paper?
    Can we deduce personality from the interior of a room of a person inhabits.
  • Describe the mechanism which impact observers impression of personality, based on  personal environment and processes?
    Mechanism/cue types -
    underlying disposition -
    manifest behavior -
    residue/evidence of behavior.

    The first step is that observers infer behavior from residu and
    step two is that they infer dispositions from behavior.
    Or observers infer stereotypes from residues and associated traits from behavior.

    There is a underlying construct
    -> a lens by cues
    -> observer judgements =
    functional achievement / observer accuracy.
  • Which four mechanisms or cue types are there?
    - Self directed identity claims (holiday souvenir)
    - Other directed identity claims (personal certificate)
    - Interior behavior residue (papers)
    - Exterioir behavior  residue (umbrellas)
  • Which four underlying dispositions, manifest behavior and residue/evidences are there?
    - Sentimental (self directed identity) - collecting memorables (residue pebble)
    - Social responsible (other directed) - Voting (residue I vote sticker)
    - Conscientious (interior residue) - organize belongings (organized workspace
    - Sensation seeking (exterior behavioral) - snowboarding (snowboard in room)
  • Which four research questions did they use?
    1) Do observers agree on personality ratings, based on personal environments?
    2) Which cues are been used?
    3) Are observer ratings accurate?
    4) Do sex stereotypes account for consensus and accuracy? 
  • Which three sources of data collections were been used?
    - Personality measures
    - Characteristics of the room (43 environmental features like numbersof books)
    - Observer judgements ratings
  • What means cue validity?
    Which cues are good predictors for which trait.

    Information connected to personality traits.
    Examples: conscientieus -> organized, homogeneous bookcollections, cd's ..
    Openness for experience - . distinctive, unconventional
  • What means cue utilization?
    Which cues are really used to form impressions.

    Examples:
    Good versus poor condition of envir. (cons)
    Decorated versus non decorated (extravert)
    colorfull versus drab (extravert)
    full versus empty (extravert-cons)
    Veried magazines (extravert-openess-cons)
    Many (of few) CD's
    Stylish

  • Which were the results?
    Observer consensus (different for different traits), fair degree of accuracy, cue validity, cue utilization

    - There was oserver consensus but different for different traits
    - The rating have a fair degree of accuracy (openess for experience, extraversion, conscentiousness the most and sig)
    - cue validity so which cues are good predictors for traits (consc-> organized, homogenous collections books and cd's and openess -> distinctive, stylish and unconventional).
    - cue utilization (which cues are actually used).
  • What is the general conclusion of the study?
    An observer who has briefly examined an individuals living or working environment, will form consistent impressions of someones personality. These are often accurate.
  • Stereotype use sexe and race differences
    Sexe: only partially explains observers consensus and accuracy (bv perceptions of agreeableness and emotional stability, consistent stereotypes). 
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