Summary Work & Health

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Summary - Work & Health

  • 1 Lecture 1

  • Name the old definition of stress

    1.Stress is that which happens to the man…, not that which happens in him. It is a set of causes, not a set of symptoms (Sir Charles Symonds, 1947).
    2.The non-specific response of the body to any demand for change (Seyle, 1936)
    >The rate of wear and tear on the body (Seyle, later)
    >Everyone knows what stress is, but nobody really knows it (Seyle, even more later)
  • Name the new definitions of stress
    -environmental demands that exceed the capacity of an organism, resulting in psychological and biological changes that may increase risk for a disease ( Cohen)
    -challange to homeostatic balance (sapolsky)
    -A pattern of emotional cognitive behavioral and physiological reactions to adverse aspects of work content.
  • What is the definition of health

    1.WHO (1946): Health is the state of complete physical mental and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
    2.WHO (1984): Health is the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to be able to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life not the object of living; it is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as physical capacities.
    3.Ottowa charter (WHO, 1986): Health promotion is the process of enabling people to exert control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health.
  • Name the stages of health determinants according to Dahlgren and whitehead (2007)
    It begins with age, sex, and hereditary factors, in the 1e layer there is individual lifestyle factors, 2e layer contains social and community networks, 3th layer contains things like education, work enviroment, housing, unemployment, 4th layer contains General socio-economic, cultural and enviromental conditions
  • name the stressor typology

    volgens  Lepine, Challenge vs. hindrance stressors (LePine, 2005)

    Typology (Cartwright and Cooper, 1997):
    1. Characteristics of the job
    2. person's role
    3. relationship with others
    4. career prospects
    5. organizational factors
    6. home to work interface
  • upon how many hours health problems increase? and what are moderators for this relationship? Is reducing hours a solution?
    working hours-> health problem
    48 hours per week


    moderators: control, sex (worse for women), qualitiy of work relationship
    -reducing hourds does not always fit for the best solution
  • Name the Straight forward stressors
    threat of redundancy
    - Work family conflict:
    overflow of stress to partner and vice versa.

    examples are: bullying, violence, sexual harassment. 
  • What are the consequences of creating a open office at work?
    -it can have a bad influence on some people
    -sometimes improves job satisfaction
    -sometimes decreases performance
  • name 2 advantages and disadvantages for open office
    advantages:
    easy to reform, to restructure, fit more people
    disadvantages: noise, distration, inadequate privacy results in more dissatisfaction over time, reduce satisfaction, worse performance

    it is job dependent, because some managers are happy with the traditional office and others with open office
  • name a couple of environmental stressors and according to lewin what kind of fit suits for environmental stressors?
    noise, crowding, lighting, 
    person environment fit= P-E fit
  • Explain why environmental stressors influence people
    1. Environmental load-deterioration urbun life; people are over excited
    2. adaptation level theory-we ignore strains and adapt to different stressors.
    3. behavioral constraint level approach-
    4. congnitive mediation- not objective, but subjective environment
    5. arousal
  • explain the Arousal Hebbian version
    het is een model dat arousal met performance verklaart waarbij arousal (x-as) een optimale berg parabool heeft met performance (y-as). de optimale arousal+optimale performance ligt in het midden van arousal en hoog bij performance. 
  • Leg uit wat YERKES DODSON een toevoeging is op de Arousal Hebbian vesion
    de Yerkes Dodson laat in het model van Hebbian version zien dat simpele taken bij een gemiddelde en hoge arousal voor een hoge performance leiden. Moeilijke taken hebben alleen een hoge performance bij gemiddelde arousal, een hogere arousal bij moeilijke taken zorgt voor een grote daling in performance. 
  • What combination is best for an office?
    -illumination (=verlichting, niet te veel of te weinig)
    -view (=uitzicht, beter van landelijk landschap)
    these factors are related to the intention to quit 
    in general windows are better
  • How much evidence is found about Job Controle?
    mixed evidence about the buffering effect. 

  • Open-office: many individual differences
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What is a predictor of CAD?
Job strain, but there are stronger predictors
What is the population attributable risk coronary heart disease (CHD) for physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, smoking and job strain?
physical inactivity: 12%
abdominal obesity:20%
smoking: 36%
job strain: 3.4
How can we best measure CV respons to acute stress
blood pressure
heart rate
wat is het voordeel van een positieve interventie (engagement game)?
  • meer motivationeel 
  • beter imago door bevlogenheid van organisaties
Leg het model van JDC van Karasek uit en de verdeling van het model. en uitleg over de hypothesen. 
Het JDC model staat voor Job Demand Control model. 
waarbij Demands en Decision Latitude (control) gemeten worden. 

Strain hypothesis: considerable support
Buffer hypothesis: mixed support
What kind of reasons could occure if the ERI model mantaines imbalanced?
-if no alternative choice available
-if accepted for strategic reasons
-if motivational pattern present (i.e. overcommitment) 
Name evidence for General Adaptation syndrome
  1. Anxiety disorder
  2. PTSD
  3. Acute stress disorder
  4. Adjustment disorders
  5. Abuse
  6. Central to many diseases
     - heart problems
     - Burnout

Nadeel hiervan is: Not specific
Name the Straight forward stressors
threat of redundancy
- Work family conflict:
overflow of stress to partner and vice versa.

examples are: bullying, violence, sexual harassment. 
How much evidence is found about Job Controle?
mixed evidence about the buffering effect.