Samenvatting Abdomen

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Samenvatting - Abdomen

  • 1.1 Anatomy abdomen

  • Abdominal regions:
    1. Regio hypochondriaca dextra
    2. Regio epigastrica
    3. Regio hypochondriaca sinistra
    4. Regio lateralis (lumbalis) dextra
    5. Regio umbilicalis
    6. Regio lateralis (lumbalis sinistra
    7. Regio inguinalis (iliaca) dextra
    8. Regio pubica (hypogastrica)
    9. Regio inguinalis (iliaca) sinistra
  • Transpyoric plane (L1) (Addison's plane)
    --> horizontal line half way between suprasternal notch (T2/3)  & pubic symphysis

    Structures approx. on this line
           - L1 vertebra --> termination spinal cord
           - Origin of superior mesenteric artery
           - Origin of portal vein
           - Pancreatic neck
           - Pylorus
           - 2nd part of duodenum
           - Sphincter of Oddi
           - Hila of kidney
           - Duodenojujenual flexure
           - Fundus of gall bladder
           - 9th costal cartilage
           - Hilum of spleen
           - Transverse mesocolon
  • Subcostal plane
    At the level of the 10th costal cartilages and the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3)
  • Intertubercular plane
    Joins tubercles on iliac crests & lies at the level of the 5th lumbar vertebra
  • Intercristal plane
    Passes across highest points on iliac crests & lies on the level of L4
             --> Lumbar spinal tap
  • McBurney's point
    Point over the right side of the abdomen that is 1/3 of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the umbilicus. This point roughly corresponds to the most common location of the base of the appendix where it is attached to the caecum.
          --> point of surgical incision for appendectomy
  • 1.1.3.1.1 Uterus

  • Anatomy
    .
  • Physiology

    - The role of the uterus is to nurture the fetus until parturition.
    - Functionally it consists of a lower cervix (which acts at different times as a passageway, a barrier and a reservoir) and an upper body in which the fetus develops.
  • Three layers

    •Serosa - peritoneum
    •Myometrium – smooth muscle with areolar tissue, blood & lymph vessels and nerves
    •Endometrium -  lined by columnar epithelium. It contains many tube-like glands → mucus
  • Nerves

    Nerve supply to uterus via autonomic pathways:
    •Body: sympathethicfibres from T10-L1
    •Cervix: parasympathetic pathways from S2-S4

    Sympathetic activation → uterine contraction and vasoconstriction
    Parasympathetic activity → uterine inhibition and vasodilatation
  • 1.1.3.1.2 Bladder

  • The bladder
    The bladder is a hollow organ whose walls contain well-developed layers of smooth muscle, consisting of a body and a neck. In the body, urine is stored until released in the process known as urination, voiding, or micturition. The bladder can expand to hold a volume of about 500 ml. The neck is a funnel-shaped extension of the body, passing into the urogenital triangle and connecting with the urethra, a single tube through which urine passes to reach the external environment. The opening between the bladder and urethra s closed by two rings of muscular sphincters; the internal and external sphincter. 
  • 1.1.3.2.1 Gall bladder

  • Anatomy
    .
  • 1.1.3.2.2 Liver

  • Anatomy
    .
  • Enterohepatic circulation
    .
  • Portal system
    .
  • 1.1.3.2.3 Pancreas

  • .
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