Samenvatting American Civilization: An Introduction

ISBN-10 0415822025 ISBN-13 9780415822022
293 Flashcards en notities
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Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "American Civilization: An Introduction". De auteur(s) van het boek is/zijn Mauk, David C Oakland, John. Het ISBN van dit boek is 9780415822022 of 0415822025. Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris.

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Samenvatting - American Civilization: An Introduction

  • 1 The American context

  • Where is Alaska?

    The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America, west of Canada and east of Russia which is across the Bering Strait in Asia

  • idology
    A set of ideas that an economic or political system is based on, or that is held by a particular group and influences the way people behave. Many ideologies, such as those of individualism, egalitarianism and utopianism were central factors in US historical development and still are in society.
  • How is the American society divided
    Although the government takes measures to try and unify the amercian people, they remain socially, religiously, politically, ethnically, divided. 
  • People inside and outside of the US have very varied and conflicting ideas and opinions, negative and positive,  about what it means to be an American and about the country and its culture. This is due to the many differences in  religion, political views, wealth and ethnical origins. 

  • Where is Hawaii

    the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-North Pacific

  • secession
    A movement towards becoming separate from a whole. In the Civil War, the southern states wanted to separate from the rest of the states in America and become the Confederacy. They were defeated after four years and the Confederacy collapsed. The southern states are also known as the Secession States.
  • Does the US have other territories?

    Yes, the country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean.


  • What is the main motive for America's current foreign politics? How would you describe these politics, name a few  examples

    Proteciotism: nine eleven terrorist attacks, It is the aim of the US to protect their economical interests and to keep its citizens safe from terrorism. They have taken all kinds of actions to keep America (and the world) safe. They are much more strict at their borders and they have taken military actions in e.g. Afghanistan and Iraq. 

  • individualism
    A political philosophy, ideology or social outlook that emphasises the moral worth of the individual. A prominent thought within American society today as well as in history.
  • Which are the five populated US territories?

    Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Marianas,  American Samoa

  • egalitarianism
    A trend of thought that favours equality for all people. An ideology that was one of the central factors that conditioned US hystorical development.
  • What makes the American community so diverse

    early migrations of people from all over the world (Asia, Vikings=)check and settlement of various European peoples, with specific social values,  religions and institutional structures.

  • drone campaigns
    Military actions with unmanned flying objects (such as small helicopters)that carry boms. They were used against militant leaders and organisations in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia.
  • What is exceptionalism?
    The Americans think that  their culture and their ideology is best and that they have a mission to teach and help protect the other countries in the world.
  • exeptionalism
    An image the USA has, among its citizens as well as in many parts of the world, of having a unique mission in the world as a protector of peace and of idealism, high aspirations and sense of destiny.
  • What is egalitarianism?
    equal rights for every cititizen, no matter what color, belief etc. 
  • Explain and examine the significance of: utopianism
    Idealistic and impractical social theory, often beyond realization. Together with egalitarialism and individualism it was an ideology that belonged to the factors that conditioned US historical development.
  • What is utopianism
    striving for a perfect society where everyone is equal, has the same rights, noone is poor or deprived of anything. 
  • grass roots
    A political movement driven by a communty's politics wich is created natural and spontanious, rather than orchestrated by traditional power structures. Typical for a society,such as the American society, in which people believe in minimal government.
  • name 6 important central historical factors that have conditioned the American society
    large-scale immigration, treatment of native and african americans, ideologies, exceptionalism, Civil War, political polarisation, capitalism
  • Big Business
    Americans have a historical sceptisism of big business (and big government). They tend to support the principal of small businesses.
  • What is capitalism
    an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods where prices, production, and the distribution of goods  are determined mainly by competition in a free market
  • Diversity
    A main feature of American society because it is made up of many different cultures. It is argued, that it should not stand in the way of American unity.
  • What is idividualism
    a theory stressing the importance of political and economic independence of the individual and individual initiative, action, and interests
  • Populism
     Also known as: grassroots activism. A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the priviliged elite. It is one of the elements that form the identifying elements of 'Americanness'.
  • What was dominant religion of the first immigrants and what where their political principles and social principles
    white, anglo-american protestants; political principles: democracy, grassroots sovereignty, and skepticism about government; social principles: individualism, Protestant work-etchic, rule of the law
  • Slavery
    A system under which people are treated as property, to be bought and sould, and are forced to work. Slavery has made up a very important part of American history. From the  seventeenth century to the end of the civil war in 1865.
  • What is nativism
    discrimination against others by the indigenous population, racism
  • Explain and examine the significance of the Civil War
    The Civil War was a war  between the Southern (or Confederate)  and Northern (or Union) states of America, fought from 1861 to 1865, about slavery. The Confederate states lost and slavery was officially abolished.
  • What is populism
    the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
  • corporate 
    Connected with a large business company. It is an element of capitalism which exists in the American economic culture of free enterprise.
  • What do most Americans think of immigration nowadays
    They want to reduce legal immigration because they think they think all these different people with very different beliefs and cultures are a threat to American values, customs and the labour martket and they think illegal immigration should be stopped
  • culture. 
    The customs and beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a particular country or group. America has a multicultural society because of the many immigrants that live there. Also society is influenced by several important cultures, such as: Ethnic culture, religious culture, political-legal culture, economic culture, media culture and arts, sports and leisure culture. These cultures have helped to create a unique national identity.
  • what about the religious culture in Amercia
    has its routs in the ancient Native american beliefs and the religions of the various immigrants . Many immigrants came to America to be able to practice their religion and escape persecution in their homeland. . Their were periods when religious observance was low and there were great awakenings. When compared other states, in america there is strong religious belief, and a diversity of religions. The influece of religion on Amercian life causes debate. 
  • Ethnic
    Connected with or belonging to a nation, race or people that shares a cultural tradition. America has a very diverse ethnic culture, founded on Native American civilizations, European colonial settlement, African American slavery and later waves of immigrants from all over the world.
  • Which are the elements that shape (and bind) Amercan society  (politically speaking)
    the Constitution and the law
  • work ethic
    Moral principles that control or influence a person's behaviour towards work. For instance: the work ethic of the early Protestant British settlers in America: working hard in this life to be rewarded here and in the next life.
  • What sort of a government do the Americans want 
    They want minimal government, they want indiviualism, democracy
  • rule of law
    Acceptance of legal rules applicable to all individuals and institutions irrespective of status or wealth. A social value that was promoted by the early settlers in America, but which still holds very strongly today.
  • What is pluralism and what is the opposite
    Society in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups  live next to each other, coexisting while maintaining  their traditional belief and customs, within the confines of a common civilization. the opposite is assimilation, where all different groups blend together to become one new group.
  • Latinos
    Spanish speaking immigrants in the USA. There are many Latinos in America, who have come from South America, Spain and Mexico and their number is increasing. (Now over 16% of the population).
  • Name some of the most important issues of dissatisfaction 
     employment, racial and religious issues, issues such as immigration, abortion, gay marriage, death penallty and gun control, crime, healthcare, gap between rich and poor, decline of ethicas and moral
  • nativism
    discrimination towards others by the indigenous population. At different times in American history there have been conflicts and racial tensions between settled groups, Native Americans, African Americans and immigrants, revealing nativism and racism in many areas of American life.
  • Name the pillars of the economic culture of the USA and name some consequences of this culture
    individualism and free enterprise, little or no government interferance, 
    tough competition, survival of the fittest. Disparaties of wealth, social inequalities and unequal life opportunities. 
  • traits
    Is a quality in your personality. It is hard to define a single set of traits, which are shared by all Americans and are to be qualified as typically American. On the other hand, there is a distinctive US image and certain Americanness that can be recognised in several forms of media, politics, businesses, culture etc. Features such as: escape from restraints, change, action, quests for new experiences and beleive in progress of the individual and society, constitute typical American behaviour.
  • What do Americans mean when they are skeptical of big business and big government.
    They do not want certain enterprises or the government to obtain too much power, this will lead to exploitation, abuse and corruption.
  • race relations
    Relations between the many different races in America have been a problem through American history and still are today, even with a black president.
  • What is Americanization and what is the opposite
    assimilation of all different ethnic groups to one Anglo-America based identity, a national unity, a melting pot. Out o many one.  The opposite is diversity (ethnic pluralism), where different cultures coexist, more like a stew. Exceptance of diversity within national structures such as the law. 
  • recession
    a difficult time for the economy of a country, with less trade and industrial activity and more people unemloyed. This happened twice in American history: in the 1930s and in 2007 till now.
  • What is bilingualism and where
    speaking two languages; in California 
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What is the Bracero program?
temporary importation of farm labor from Mexico due to wartime labor shortages
What were the 3 pull factors for the second wave immigrants?
1. appartently unlimited supply of land
2. work
3. discovery of gold in California
What were the 3 push factors for the second wave immigrants?
1. religious persecutions
2. Political unrest
3. Economic push factors
How many waves of immigrants were there and what were they called?
The first wave - colonial immigration
The second wave - the old immigrants
The Third wave - the new immigrants
The fourth wave - 1965 to the present
Why did most well-educated middle-class immigrant people wanted to create a "city on a hill"?
to show how English society could be reformed
.... = the people who established the colonies, are called ... rather than immigrants because they created the customs, laws and institutions to which the later arrivals had to adjust
The Founders
indigenous people =
native people
What are magnet schools?
the first autonomous public schools in inner cities. These institutions were allowed to specialice in particular subject areas and were given the funds and staff that would bring voluntary desegregation by attracting students from other districts
Name the two best state universities
Berkeley campus of the University of California
Madison campus of the University of Wisconsin
Name the three important kinds of localism encouraged by the delegation of state authority to local school districts.
1. Financial localism (delegation of responsibility for funding schools)
2. Political localism (local board)
3. Social localism