Samenvatting An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

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ISBN-10 1319114776 ISBN-13 9781319114770
914 Flashcards en notities
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Samenvatting 1:

  • An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
  • Anthony J F Griffiths John Doebley Catherine Peichel
  • 9781319114770 of 1319114776
  • 2020

Samenvatting - An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

  • 1 The Genetics Revolution

  • A purine base that pairs with thymine in the DNA double helix.
    Adenine (A)
  • One of the different forms of a gene that can exist at a single locus.
    Allele
  • The belief that inheritance worked like the mixing of fluids such as paints.
    Blending theory
  • Inheritance theory where Mendel’s genes are located on chromosomes
    Chromosome theory
  • A section of RNA (three nucleotides in length) that encodes a single amino acid.
    Codon
  • Refers to specific pairing between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
    Complementary (base pairs)
  • DNA transcribed from a messenger RNA template through the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
    Complementary DNA (cDNA)
  • A pyrimidine base that pairs with guanine.
    Cytosine (C)
  • Protein that can make a copy of a single DNA strand by synthesizing a matching strand with the complementary sequence of A’s, C’s, G’s, and T’s.
    DNA polymerase
  • The process used to decipher the exact sequence of A’s, C’s, G’s, and T’s in a DNA molecule
    DNA sequencing
  • The phenotype shown by a heterozygote.
    Dominant
  • The process of synthesizing two identical copies of a DNA molecule from one original copy
    DNA replication
  • Sex cells (eggs and sperm)
    Gametes
  • The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity, which carries information from one generation to the next; a segment of DNA composed of a transcribed region and a regulatory sequence that makes transcription possible.
    Gene
  • The process by which a gene’s DNA sequence is transcribed into RNA and, for protein-coding genes, into a polypeptide.
    Gene expression
  • A popular term for a transgenic organism, especially applied to transgenic agricultural organisms.
    Genetically modified organism (GMO)
  • (1) The study of genes. (2) The study of inheritance.
    Genetics
  • The cloning and molecular characterization of entire genomes.
    Genomics
  • A purine base that pairs with cytosine.
    Guanine (G)
  • Protein that can join two DNA molecules together end-to-end.
    Ligase
  • An RNA molecule transcribed from the DNA of a gene; a protein is translated from this RNA molecule by the action of ribosomes.
    MRNA (messenger RNA)
  • A species used in experimental biology with the presumption that what is learned from the analysis of that species will hold true for other species, especially other closely related species.
    Model organism
  • A hypothesis that explains quantitative variation by proposing that traits are controlled by a large number of genes, each with a small effect on the trait.
    Multifactorial hypothesis
  • Protein that can cut DNA molecules in specific locations or degrade an entire DNA molecule into single nucleotides.
    Nuclease
  • A mid-twentiethcentury hypothesis that originally proposed that each gene (nucleotide sequence) encodes a polypeptide sequence; generally true, with the exception of untranslated functional RNA.
    One-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis
  • A mutation that alters a single base position in a DNA molecule by converting it to a different base or by the insert/deletion of a single base in a DNA molecule.
    Point mutation
  • A gene contributing to the phenotypic variation in a trait that shows complex inheritance, such as height and weight.
    Quantative Trait Locus (QTL)
  • Elements that regulate gene expression—that is, whether a gene is turned on or off.
    Regulatory elements
  • A nucleotidepair difference at a given location in the genomes of two or more naturally occurring individuals.
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) (snip)
  • Each of the cells of the body (except gametes)
    Somatic cells
  • A pyrimidine base that pairs with adenine.
    Thymine (T)
  • The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.
    Transcription
  • The directed modification of a genome by the external application of DNA from a cell of different genotype.
    Transformation
  • The ribosome- and tRNA-mediated production of a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is derived from the codon sequence of an mRNA molecule.
    Translation
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Samenvatting 2:

  • An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
  • Anthony J F Griffiths Susan R Wessler Sean B Carroll John Doebley
  • 9781464109485 of 1464109486
  • 2015

Samenvatting - An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

  • 1 Gene expression:

  • What are the 4 classes of non-protein-coding (functional) RNAs in humans?
    tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA, siRNA (piRNA)
  • Which two classes of functional RNAs are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA
  • Which class of functional RNAs participate in the processing of RNA, specific to eukaryotes?
    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
  • Which classes of functional RNA suppres gene expression and also maintain genome stability?
    MicroRNA (miRNA), Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and kiwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)
  • 1.1 RNA

  • What is the definition of functional RNAs?
    The RNA itself is the final functional product and are never translated into protein
  • What is the function of tRNA?
    Transfer RNA is responsible for bringing the correct amino acid to the mRNA in the process of translation
  • Which functional RNAs are involved in protein synthesis?
    tRNA, rRNA
  • What is the function of rRNA?
    Molecules that are the major components of ribosomes, which guide the assembly of the amino acid chain by the mRNA and tRNA
  • tRNA and rRNA are involved in?
    Protein synthesis
  • What is the function of small nuclear RNAs?
    Processes RNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells
  • Which functional RNA is involved in RNA processing
    Small nuclear RNAs
  • Which functional RNA unites with several protein subunits to form the ribonucleoprotein processing complex (spliceosome) that removes introns from eukaryotic mRNA?
    Small nuclear RNAs
  • Which functional RNAs suppress the expression of genes?
    MicroRNAs
  • Which functional RNAs maintain genome stability?
    Small interfering RNA and piwi interacting RNA
  • What is the role of miRNA?
    Regulating the amount of protein produced by many eukaryotic genes
  • Which functional RNAs prevent the spread of transposable elements to other chromosomal loci?
    SiRNA, piRNA
  • What is the function of siRNA's?
    Inhibit the production of viruses and restrain transposable elements in plants
  • What is he function of piRNA?
    Inhibit the production of viruses and restrain transposable elements in animals.
  • SiRNA and piRNA are involved in?
    Genome defense
  • Which functional RNAs perform a role in genome defense?
    SiRNA, piRNA
  • 1.2 Transcription

  • Name the 3 classes of RNA polymerases in eukaryotes?
    RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase III
  • By which enzyme is each ribonucleotide positioned opposite its complementary base?
    RNA polymerase
  • which gene transcribes RNA polymerase I?
    rRNA genes (excluding 5S rRNA)
  • Which gene transcribes RNA polymerase II
    All protein encoding genes, like mRNA and some snRNA, miRNAs
  • Which gene transcribes RNA polymerase III?
    Small functional RNA genes, as tRMA, snRMA and 5S rRNA
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

A bacterial protein that, as part of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme, recognizes the 10 and 35 regions of bacterial promoters, thus positioning the holoenzyme to initiate transcription correctly at the start site. The σ factor dissociates from the holoenzyme before RNA synthesis.
Sigma (σ) factor
A statistical measure used to quantify the degree to which the trait values of individuals deviate from the population mean.
Variance
A categorical trait for which the expression of the different phenotypic states depends on a combination of multiple genetic and/or environmental factors that place an individual above or below a critical value for trait expression.
Threshold trait
The square root of the variance.
Standard deviation
A form of inheritance in which only one (or a few) genes are involved and the environment has little or no effect on the phenotype; categorical traits often exhibit simple inheritance.
Simple inheritance
The amount of change in the average value of some phenotypic character between the parental generation and the offspring generation as a result of the selection of parents.
Selection response (R)
The difference between the mean of a population and the mean of the individual members selected to be parents of the next generation.
Selection differential (S)
A small group of individual members or observations meant to be representative of a larger population from which the group has been taken.
Sample
A gene contributing to the phenotypic variation in a trait that shows complex inheritance, such as height and weight.
Quantative trait locus (QTL)
Any trait exhibiting complex inheritance because it is controlled by a mix of genetic and/or environmental factors.
Quantative trait