Samenvatting An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

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ISBN-10 1319114776 ISBN-13 9781319114770
205 Flashcards en notities
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Samenvatting 1:

  • An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
  • Anthony J F Griffiths John Doebley Catherine Peichel
  • 9781319114770 of 1319114776
  • 2020

Samenvatting - An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

  • 1 The Genetics Revolution

  • What is genomics?
    The study of the structure and function of entire genomes.
  • 1.1 The birth of genes

  • What is the blending theory?
    The belief that inheritance worked like mixing paint. When you mix red with blue you get purple. So a tall parent and a short parent would get a medium hight child.
  • 1.1.1 Gregor mendel

  • What did mendel conclude from his experiments with pea plants?
    1. Genes behave like particles and don't blend.
    2. One allele is dominant to the other.
  • Genes used to be known as Mendel's particals.
    Alleles are gene-variants.
  • Somatic cells are cells of the body.
    Gametes are sex cells.
  • What was the experiment Mendel did?
    Crossing purple and white pea plants to get a first generation hybrid. He self pollinated this plant to get second-generation hybrids.
  • 1.1.2 mendel rediscovered

  • What is genetics?
    The study of inheritance
  • What is the multifactorial hypothesis?
    The insight that some traits are controlled by multiple genes.
  • What is the one-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis?
    The proposal that genes encode for enzymes that are required for different function in the body.
  • Where is genetic information stored in the body?
    In DNA in the nucleus of a cell.
  • DNA exists of a backbone of sugar and phosphate groups and four bases: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine & Cytosine.
  • Adenine and Thymine have a double hydrogen bond.
    Guanine and Cytosine have a triple hydrogen bond.
  • DNA is a double helix in which the nucleotide bases of one strand are paired complementary with those of the other strand.
  • How are genes regulated?
    Genes have regulatory elements that control gene expression (whether a gene is turned on or of)
  • Genes reside on chromosomes and are made of DNA. Genes encode proteins that conduct the basic enzymatic work within the cells.
  • 1.1.3 The central dogma

  • What is the central dogma?
    The flow of genetic information within cells. From DNA being replicated or transcribed to mRNA, then translated to a protein.
  • 1.2.1 Model organisms

  • What is a model organism?
    A species used in experimental biology with the presumption that what is learned from the analysis of that species will hold true for other species.
  • Features that make species suitable as a model organism:
    1. Small organism
    2. Short generation time
    3. Small genome 
    4. Are easy to mate and produce large numbers of offspring
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Samenvatting 2:

  • An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
  • Anthony J F Griffiths Susan R Wessler Sean B Carroll John Doebley
  • 9781464109485 of 1464109486
  • 2015

Samenvatting - An Introduction to Genetic Analysis

  • 1 Gene expression:

  • What are the 4 classes of non-protein-coding (functional) RNAs in humans?
    tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA, siRNA (piRNA)
  • Which two classes of functional RNAs are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA
  • Which class of functional RNAs participate in the processing of RNA, specific to eukaryotes?
    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
  • Which classes of functional RNA suppres gene expression and also maintain genome stability?
    MicroRNA (miRNA), Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and kiwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)
  • 1.1 RNA

  • What is the definition of functional RNAs?
    The RNA itself is the final functional product and are never translated into protein
  • What is the function of tRNA?
    Transfer RNA is responsible for bringing the correct amino acid to the mRNA in the process of translation
  • Which functional RNAs are involved in protein synthesis?
    tRNA, rRNA
  • What is the function of rRNA?
    Molecules that are the major components of ribosomes, which guide the assembly of the amino acid chain by the mRNA and tRNA
  • tRNA and rRNA are involved in?
    Protein synthesis
  • What is the function of small nuclear RNAs?
    Processes RNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells
  • Which functional RNA is involved in RNA processing
    Small nuclear RNAs
  • Which functional RNA unites with several protein subunits to form the ribonucleoprotein processing complex (spliceosome) that removes introns from eukaryotic mRNA?
    Small nuclear RNAs
  • Which functional RNAs suppress the expression of genes?
    MicroRNAs
  • Which functional RNAs maintain genome stability?
    Small interfering RNA and piwi interacting RNA
  • What is the role of miRNA?
    Regulating the amount of protein produced by many eukaryotic genes
  • Which functional RNAs prevent the spread of transposable elements to other chromosomal loci?
    SiRNA, piRNA
  • What is the function of siRNA's?
    Inhibit the production of viruses and restrain transposable elements in plants
  • What is he function of piRNA?
    Inhibit the production of viruses and restrain transposable elements in animals.
  • SiRNA and piRNA are involved in?
    Genome defense
  • Which functional RNAs perform a role in genome defense?
    SiRNA, piRNA
  • 1.2 Transcription

  • Name the 3 classes of RNA polymerases in eukaryotes?
    RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase III
  • By which enzyme is each ribonucleotide positioned opposite its complementary base?
    RNA polymerase
  • which gene transcribes RNA polymerase I?
    rRNA genes (excluding 5S rRNA)
  • Which gene transcribes RNA polymerase II
    All protein encoding genes, like mRNA and some snRNA, miRNAs
  • Which gene transcribes RNA polymerase III?
    Small functional RNA genes, as tRMA, snRMA and 5S rRNA
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What is the sum rule?
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What is the product rule?
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How are X-linked dominant disorders recognised?
  1. Affected males pass the condition to all their daughters but not their sons.
  2. Affected heterozygous females  mating with unaffected males pass the condition to half their sons and daughters.
How are X-linked recessive disorder recognised?
  1. Many more male than females show the rare phenotype.
  2. None of the offspring of an affected male show the phenotype but all his daughters are carriers. In the next generation half the sons of these females show the phenotype.
  3. None of the sons of an affected male show the phenotype, nor are they carriers.
What is polymorphism?
The coexistance of two or more reasonably common phenotypes of a biological property in a population.
How can you recognise a autosomal dominant disorder?
Autosominal dominant disorders show affected females and males in each generation; they also show affected men and woman transmitting the condition to equal proportions of their sons and daughters.
How is a autosmal recessive disorder revealed?
By the appearance of the disorder in the male and female progeny of unaffected parents.
How is sex-linked inheritance recognised?
By different phenotypic ratios in the two sexes of progeny, as well as different ratios in reciprocal crosses.
What are pseudoautosomal regions 1 and 2?
Small homologous regions on the sex chromosomes that are autosomal like.
Wht are the two types of sex linkage?
  • X-linkage when the gene is on the X-chromosome
  • Y-linkage when the gene is on the Y-chromosome