Samenvatting Chemistry and Biochemistry

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Samenvatting - Chemistry and Biochemistry

  • 2.7.1 Key concept: valence shell, octet rule, atom/compound stability

  • When a carbon atom is part of an organic compound, how full is its valence (outer) shell?
    Carbon's valence (outer) shell contains 4 paired electrons as to achieve stability, each carbon atom must form 4 chemical bonds to fill its valence electron shell
  • Why?
    Atoms that make up organic compounds form covalent bonds to fill their valence electron shells to become stable
  • How does the octet rule relate to the number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom forms within an organic compound?
  • Are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more or less stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
  • Why are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
  • 2.7.2 Key concept: Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

  • How is the covalent bonding within a saturated hydrocarbon different from the covalent bonding in an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
  • Is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon likely to have more hydrogens attached to the carbon atoms in the compound? Why?
  • Does an unsaturated hydrocarbon compound contain any single carbon to carbon bonds? Explain why/why not.
  • 2.8.1 Key concept: bonding arrangements of hydrocarbons

  • Are saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons more reactive?
  • What types of chemical reactions do the reactive hydrocarbons participate in?
  • What allows the reactive hydrocarbons to participate in these reactions?
  • How is an alkyne converted to alkane?
  • Does the alkyne compound become more or less stable through the conversion to an alkane? Why?
  • 2.8.2 Key concept: hydrocarbon functional groups

  • How is benzene different to other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, alkenes and alkynes?
  • What are resonance structures of benzene and how do they explain the stability of benzene?
  • Would it be easier to break a double carbon to carbon bond within an alkene or in benzene? Justify your answer.
  • 2.9.1 Key concept: reactivity of functional groups

  • Why is it necessary for the body to take alcohol to the liver once it enters the blood?
  • What are the functional group changes that allow alcohol breakdown to occur?
  • What type of chemical reaction facilitates these functional group changes?
  • Why are people of Asian ethnicity often more affected by alcohol than others? Explain.
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What is another name for a set of three nitrogen containing bases called a codon?
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