Samenvatting Chemistry and Biochemistry

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Samenvatting - Chemistry and Biochemistry

  • 2.7.1 Key concept: valence shell, octet rule, atom/compound stability

  • When a carbon atom is part of an organic compound, how full is its valence (outer) shell?
    Carbon's valence (outer) shell contains 4 paired electrons as to achieve stability, each carbon atom must form 4 chemical bonds to fill its valence electron shell
  • Why?
    Atoms that make up organic compounds form covalent bonds to fill their valence electron shells to become stable
  • How does the octet rule relate to the number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom forms within an organic compound?
    .
  • Are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more or less stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
    .
  • Why are the carbon atoms within an organic compound more stable than individual atoms not part of a compound?
    .
  • 2.7.2 Key concept: Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

  • How is the covalent bonding within a saturated hydrocarbon different from the covalent bonding in an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
    .
  • Is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon likely to have more hydrogens attached to the carbon atoms in the compound? Why?
    .
  • Does an unsaturated hydrocarbon compound contain any single carbon to carbon bonds? Explain why/why not.
    .
  • 2.8.1 Key concept: bonding arrangements of hydrocarbons

  • Are saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons more reactive?
    .
  • What types of chemical reactions do the reactive hydrocarbons participate in?
    .
  • What allows the reactive hydrocarbons to participate in these reactions?
    .
  • How is an alkyne converted to alkane?
    .
  • Does the alkyne compound become more or less stable through the conversion to an alkane? Why?
    .
  • 2.8.2 Key concept: hydrocarbon functional groups

  • How is benzene different to other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, alkenes and alkynes?
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  • What are resonance structures of benzene and how do they explain the stability of benzene?
    .
  • Would it be easier to break a double carbon to carbon bond within an alkene or in benzene? Justify your answer.
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  • 2.9.1 Key concept: reactivity of functional groups

  • Why is it necessary for the body to take alcohol to the liver once it enters the blood?
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  • What are the functional group changes that allow alcohol breakdown to occur?
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  • What type of chemical reaction facilitates these functional group changes?
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  • Why are people of Asian ethnicity often more affected by alcohol than others? Explain.
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

What is an example of a codon that codes for a specific amino acid?
AUG in mRNA codes for the amino acid methionine
What does a set of three nitrogen containing bases, also called a  codon or genetic code, do?
Codes for a specific amino acid
What is another name for a set of three nitrogen containing bases called a codon?
Genetic code
What is another name for a nitrogen containing base, sugar and phosphate?
Nucleotide
What is another name for a nitrogen containing base and a sugar where the sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose?
Nucleoside
What are three examples of the small nitrogen containing ring structures called pyrimidines?
Thymine, cytosine and uracil
What are two examples of the large nitrogen containing ring structures called purines?
Adenine and guanine
What is a distinguishing characteristic between fats and oils?
Their physical state at room temperature
What is the most abundant steroid in the human body?
Cholesterol
Three fatty acids and one what are the products of the hydrolysis of a triacylglycerol (TAG)?
Glycerol