Samenvatting Class notes - Bio 125 anatomy

- Bio 125 anatomy
- Ribiya
- 2016 - 2017
- Rio Hondo college
- Final exam
254 Flashcards en notities
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Bio 125 anatomy

  • 1480978800 bio 125 Anatomy final

  • what is saliva?
    a mixture of water, ions, mucus, and enzymes.
  • what are the functions of saliva?
    It moisten, dissolves food, binds food together(Bolus)
    It aids in digestion of starch
    It prevents tooth decay by neutralizing acids
    It contains bactericidal enzymes, antiviral substances, and antibodies to kill harmful oral microorganisms
    contains proteins to help growth of beneficial bacteria
  • All salivary glands are?
    compound (branched ducts) tubuloalveolar (secretory unit shaped) glands.
  • what are the 2 types of salivary glands?
    Intrinsic Salivary glands
    Extrinsic Salivary glands
  • intrinsic salivary glands
    scattered within mucosa of tongue,
    palate, lips, and cheeks; keep mouth moist at all times
  • Extrinsic Salivary glands
    lie external to the mouth but have ducts that open to the mouth
  • The extrinsic salivary glands include which 3 glands
    parotid glands
    submandibular glands
    sublingual glands
  • Parotid glands
    exterior to ear, between masseter and skin
  • submandibular glands
    at medial surface of mandible, anterior to mandibular angle
  • sublingual glands
    in floor of oral cavity, inferior to tougue
  • From the mouth, the ____ and ____ allow passage of food and fluids to the esophagus and air to the trachea?
    Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
  • The pharynx is lined with a ______ epithelium and mucus glands
    stratified squamous
  • what are the 2 skeletal muscle layers of the pharynx?
    Inner longitudinal and outer pharyngeal constrictors
  • what is the esophagus?
    A muscular tube (10 inches) that joins the laryngopharynx to the stomach; travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphragm; joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice
  • the empty esophagus is folded which way?
    longitudinally and flattened
  • in the esophagus glands do what? and bolus do what?
    glands secrete mucus, and bolus move through the esophagus
  • in the esophagus muscularis changes from ____ to ____?
    skeletal (superiorly) to smooth muscle (inferiorly)
  • the stomach is?
    site where food is churned into chyme~4 hours
    protein digestion begins (secretes pepsin) functions under acidic conditions
  • what is chyme?
    the liquid substance found in the stomach consist of partially digested food, water, hydrochloric acid and various digestive enzymes.
  • what is hydrochloric acid?
    a strong acid that destorys many harmful bacteria in the food
  • what are some of the substances absorbed through the stomach?
    water, electrolytes, and some drugs.
  • where does the stomach lie?
    in the upper left quadrant of the peritoneal cavity
  • cardiac region
    surrounds the cardiac orifice at the junction with the esophagus.
  • fundus of the stomach
    dome-shaped region immediatly inferior to the diaphram
  • body of the stomach
    mid portion of the stomach
  • pyloric region
    made up of the antrum (cave) and canal which terminates at the pylorus; pylorus is continuous with the duodenum (1st part small intestine) through the pyloric sphincter
  • rugae of stomach
    longitudinal folds of mucosa; allow distension
  • greater curvature of stomach
    entire extent of the convex lateral surface
  • lesser curvature of the stomach
    concave medial surface
  • small intestine
    longest portion of the alimentary canal (short people 2.7-5meter, tall people 6-7meters)
    site of most enzymatic digestion and absorption of nutrients (3-6hours)
  • what are the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine?
    duodenum(5%) jejunum (40%) and ileum (55%)
  • duodenum?
    chyme passes through pyloric valve and enters the duodenum (10 inches long)
    recieves digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver and gall bladder
  • which two ducts enter the wall of the duodenum
    pancreatic and common bile ducts
    they form a bulb called the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
  • what does the hepatopancreatic ampulla do?
    opens into the duodenum via a mound called the major duodenal papilla
  • what are the 3 structural modifications that amplify the absorptive surfaces of the wall of the small intestines ?
    1.circular folds (plicae circulare)
  • circular folds (plicae circulares)
    1 cm tall transverse ridges of the mucosa and submucosa
    -force the chyme to spiral through the intestinal lumen ...slowing its movement
  • villi
    1mm tall fingerlike projections of the mucosa that are covered by a simple columnar epithelium made up primarily of absorptive cells (enterocytes) specialized for absorbing digested nutrients
    -contains lacteals and blood capillaries
  • microvilli
    tiny projections of absorptive cell's at the apical surface that contain enzymes
    (total surface area of small intestince-200msquared)
  • what are absorptive cells?
    uptake digested nutrients...contain many mitochondria
    contain and abundant amount of endoplasmic reticulum.
  • endoplasmic reticulum
    assembles newly absorbed lipid molecules into lipid-protein complexes called chylomicrons, which enter the lacteal cappilaries
  • goblet cells
    secrete mucus that lubricates chyme and forms a protective barrier that prevents enzymatic digestion of the intestinal wall
  • Enteroendocrine cells
    cells of the duodenum that secrete hormones
  • cholecystokinin
    signals the gallbladder to release stored bile and pancrease to secrete its digestive enzymes
  • Secretin
    signals the pancreatic ducts to secrete a biacabonate-rich juice to neutralize the acidic chyme entering the duodenum
  • Intestinal crypts
    mucosa between the villi that contain epithelia cell that secrete intestinal juice...a watery liquid that mixes with chyme.
  • epithelial stem cells divide in the crypt and they....
    renew the mucosal epithelium by moving continously into the villi
  • Large intestines main functions?
    absorb water. and electrolytes(12-24hours)
    digested residue contains few nutrients
    small amount of digestion by bacteria
    mass peristaltic movements force feces toward the rectum
  • how long is the large intestine?
    1.5 meters
  • what is the large intestine subdivided into
    cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal
  • the large intestine exhibits what 3 special features?
    Teniae coli
    Epiploic appendages
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Internal Os
superior boundary of the cervical canal
-contains cervical glands that secrete a mucus that fills the cervical canal and covers the ext. OS: blocks sperm except during mid-cycle
external OS
inferior boundary of the cervical canal
cervical canal
cavity of the cervix that communicates with the vagina
uterus lumen:
divided; cavity of the body and the cervical canal
narrow neck which projects into the vagina inferiorly
isthmus of the uterus
narrowed region between the body and cervix
fundus of the uterus
rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
body of the uterus:
major portion of the uterus (recieves, retains, and nourishes fertilized egg)
uterus (womb):
hollow, thick -walled organ located in the pelvis anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder
the uterine tubes have little or no direct contact with the ovaries, therefore ovulated oocyte are cast into the__?
peritoneal cavity
-beating cilia on the fimbriae create currents to carry the oocyte into the unterine tube
- the oocyte is carried toward the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary action
-nonciliated cells keep the oocyte and the sperm nourished and moist