Samenvatting Class notes - Biological Psychology

- Biological Psychology
- 2020 - 2021
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Psychologie
478 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Biological Psychology

  • 1603753200 Structure and function of nerve cells

  • When elements get a meaning?
    When they can form molecules
  • How bonds can be made?
    1. Ionic bonds (electrostatic bonds)
    2. Covalent bonds (sharing of electrons) 
  • Which parts does an amino acid consist of?
    1. Amino group
    2. Acid group
    3. Side chain of carbon that can change 
  • Definition proteins
    Strands of 1000 different amino acids
  • Definition peptides
    Strands of 10 different amino acids
  • Definition lipids (fat)
    Long carbon chains
  • Definition phospholipids 
    Head: phosphate, it has many protons whereby it attracts electrons. Because of this, it is negatively charged and hydrophilic.

    Tail: carbon, is hydrophobic.
  • Definition cell nucleus
    It contains the DNA and can transport mRNA with little pores.
  • Definition mRNA
    Parts of the DNA that can be copied. It contains the recipe for the production of proteins.
  • Definition ER
    The mRNA is read to produce, store and transport proteins
  • Definition golgi
    Here the proteins are packed.
  • Definition ribosomes.
    The ribosomes will transport along the mRNA like a zipper and by doing that it will make a new synthesized protein.
  • Definition axoplasmic transport
    Transport of the proteins trough the axon
  • Definition kinesin
    Anterograde transport from the soma to terminal buttons
  • Definition dynein
    Retrograde transport from terminal buttons to soma
  • Definition microglia:
    They are important for the immunological defense and removal of dead cells
  • What are the macroglia cells?
    • Oligodendrocyten
    • Schwann cells
    • Astrocyten
  • Definitie oligodendrocytes
    They form the myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. It can apply multiple myeline sheats.
  • Definition Schwann cells
    Form the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system. It can apply one myelin sheath.
  • Functions astrocytes
    1. Structure and solidity to the brain
    2. Isolate synaptic clefts
    3. Can take out nutrients from the bloodstream and give it to neurons. It converts glucose in blood tot lactate. 
  • What is the membrane/resting potential?
    -65 mV
  • How is the membrane potential caused?
    It is caused trough two forces: diffusion and electrostatics
  • Which ions are inside the cell?
    1. A- (negatively charged proteins)
    2. K+ (retained by electrostatic force)
  • Which ions are outside the cell?
    1. Na+. It is driven inward by diffusion and electrostatic forces. But it is transported to the outside by the Na+-K+ pump
    2. Cl- is retained by electrostatic force
  • Advantages myelin conduction
    Saltatory conduction is faster and energy efficient
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Biological Psychology

  • 1412892000 Lecture 1 - Background

  • What did the Hippocrates claim?
    That the brain controlled intelligence and it was involved in sensation.
  • What did Aristotle argue in terms of the heart and the brain?
    He argued that the heart is the centre of the body, not the brain.
  • How does Aristotle's argument differ from today's view?
    Aristotle: the heart is affected by emotion 
    Today: the brain is central to emotional processing and production 

    Aristotle: The brain is not connected with the sense organs
    Today: Sensory connections are neural, not vascular
  • What did Descartes argue was in the brain?
    The mind (he believed the mind controlled the brain).
  • What was Descartes main argument?
    Dualism - the philosophical position that behaviour is controlled by two entities i.e mind and body are separate. 
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the mind and brain?
    The brain is the organ of the mind
  • What did Gall argue in terms of the shape of the brain?
    The shape determined your personality (although there was a lack of scientific proof for this).
  • What did Karl Kleist develop?
    A functional map of the cerebral cortex from case notes of WW1 head-wound casualties. 
  • What did Golgi and Cajal disagree on?
    Golgi - the nerve cells acted like the blood vessels of the body (wrong view)
    Cajal - nerve cells are separate entities with their own functions (correct view) 
  • What did Bailey & von Bonin find?
    Different parts of the brain are connected.
  • What does the frontal lobe do in terms of our behaviour?
    It is the 'breaks' of our behaviour.
    (Phineas Gage had damage to his frontal lobe = he couldn't control his behaviour - he showed that the brain did control personality)
  • What is the general function of the left hemisphere? 
    Language processing 
  • What is the general function of the right hemisphere?
    Spatial awareness 
  • What does MRI study?
    Brain anatomy using water molecules 
  • What does fMRI study?
    Studies brain function by tracking blood flow in the brain 
  • What does EEG look at?
    Brain waves
  • 1412978400 Lecture 2 - The Neuron and the Action Potential

  • What is the gap between neurons called?
    The synapse 
  • What are chemically passed between neurons?
    Electrical impulses
  • What do ion pumps and ion channels control?
    They control the movement of ions into and out of the cell
  • What two forces determine the movement of ions?
    Concentration and electrical charge
  • Where are anions located in a neuron?
    They are inside the cell - inside of cells are electrically more negative compared to the outside of the cell.
  • Different ions have different ion channels.
  • Ion channels and the resting membrane potential
    • At rest, sodium ion channels are closed. Therefore, sodium is not free to move across the membrane
    • However, some potassium ions are open. This allows potassium to move into and out of the cell
    • Potassium (K+) is attracted into the cell because the cell is more negative inside compared to the outside
    • Potassium is also attracted out of the cell because there is less potassium outside the cell
    •                                             = the two forces are at equilibrium 
  • What does the movement of the potassium ions when the neuron is at rest show?
    That the electrical gradient and the concentration gradient cannot both be satisfied = equilibrium 
  • What is the equilibrium potential of K+? What does this show?
    This shows that inside of the cell is still negative compared to the outside when K+ reaches equilibrium (at rest, a neuron has more positive ions outside the cell than inside the cell) 
  • What does the sodium potassium pump cause? How?
    At rest, the cell is negatively charged. The sodium potassium pump causes this imbalance by continually pumping, pushing out 3 positive sodium ions out of the cell, and pumping two positive potassium ions into the cell. 
  • What does the imbalance caused by the Na/K pump allow in terms of currents and impulses?
    It allows the flow of ions to create a current which causes a nerve impulse = ACTION POTENTIAL
  • What is the Resting Membrane Potential?
  • Where are action potentials generated?
    The axon hillock, if the net change is above the threshold, 50mv. (the action potential is then propagated down the axon to the presynaptic terminals)
  • Sodium and the rise of the action potential
    • When a cell is stimulated above threshold (-50mv which allows for an action potential), sodium ion channels open
    • Sodium is attracted into the cell because there is more Na+ outside than inside and also because the cell is negatively charged 
    • The influx of positive ions causes the cell to become more positive 
  • Potassium and the fall of the action potential
    • The loss of potassium causes the cell to become more negative 
    • When the action potential reaches its peak, the cell becomes positively charged 
    • Potassium ions are therefore attracted to the negative outside the cell
  • What is happens during hyperpolarization? 
    Positive ions leave the cell (inside of the cell becomes even more negatively charged than it was before)
    All voltage gates shut and the sodium & potassium pumps start, making sure there is more sodium on the outside of the cell and more K+ inside 
  • What happens during depolarization?
    All the Na+ ions run inside the cell, making the cell more positive (+40)
  • What happens during reploarization?
    After depolarization which left the cell at +40mv, the potassium channels (that only open at +40mv) open and potassium rushes out of the cell
  • What order does hyperpolization, depolarization and repolarization come in?
    1. Resting
    2. Depolarization 
    3. Repolarization 
    4. Hyperpolarization
    5. Resting 
  • What kind of axons conduct action potentials faster?
    Myelinated axons
  • Another action potential cannot be generated until the preceding potential has finished 
  • Strength of stimulus is indicated by...
    Increased firing rate of action potentials
  • What happens when the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal?
    A neurotransmitter is released into the synapse
  • What two effects can the neurotransmitter have?
    Excitatory or inhibitory
  • What is the function of dendrites? 
    Collecting information from other cells.
  • What are glial cells?
    They provide support, helping neurons to transmit information by providing support, nutrients and protection
  • How are glial cells different from neurons?
    They can replace themselves 
  • What are the five major types of Glial cells and their functions?
    Ependymal cell - makes and secretes cerebrospinal fluid; found on the walls of the ventricles in the brain.

    Astrocyte - star shaped; provides structural support to neurons in the central nervous system and transports substances between neurons and blood vessels.

    Microglial cell - defensive function; along with schwann cells they play a part in repairing damage to the peripheral nervous system

    Oligodendroglial cell - asymmetrical; forms myelin around CNS axons in the brain and spinal cord

    Schwann cell - asymmetrical; wraps around peripheral nerves to form myelin
  • What two kinds of cells compose the nervous system?
    Neurons - transmit information 
    Glia - support brain function
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Laatst toegevoegde flashcards

Definition neurogenesis
Birth of new neurons
Why sports helps with a depression?
It increases blood volume in the hippocampus and this leads to neurogenesis in the hippocampus
What is the effect of stress on the serotonergic system?
It dysregulates it due to over activation leading to serotonine deficiency. This leads to reduced frontal lobe activation --> GABA-ergic inhibition of the amygdala --> amygdala becomes insufficiently inhibited --> influence of the amygdala increases 
Definition specific gene
Increases the risk for a certain disorder and in combination with common genetic factor it determines the total genetic risk
Definition common genetic factor
Common set of genes that increase the risk for anxiety, neuroticism and depression.
Describe model depression
  1. Stress/anxiety reaches amygdala
  2. subgenual ACC activates 
  3. Dorsal ACC activates 
  4. Amygdala inhibits (suppresses the stress)

    This feedback loop is less efficient with a familial predisposition for depression
Definition dorsal ACC
It is the upper part of the frontal lobe. It has a negative correlation with the amygdala.
Definition subgenual ACC
It is the lower part of the frontal lobe. It has positive correlation with the amygdala.
Definition monoamine-hypothesis
Depression is associated with reduced monoaminergic NT. (NE en 5-HT)
How can anti-epileptics work in BD?
It reduces the frontal lobe activity thus reduces the mania