Samenvatting Class notes - Civil War and Conflict Studies

Vak
- Civil War and Conflict Studies
- M.J. van der Velde, J. van Koppen
- 2017 - 2018
- De Haagse Hogeschool (De Haagse Hogeschool, Den Haag)
- IPM
196 Flashcards en notities
2 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Civil War and Conflict Studies

  • 1552950000 New wars

  • Why study (civil) war and armed violence?
    In order to adequately handle conflict, we need to understand it.
  • In order to adequately handle conflict, we need to understand it. Why work to solve conflicts?
    • Loss of human lives and development. 
    • Financial costs. 
  • The Spanish civil war lasted from 1936 to 1939. What is a civil war?
    A civil war is a war fought by different groups of people living in the same country.
  • Most wars are interstate. In interstate conflicts the international law is enforceable. Define an interstate conflict:
    Interstate violence is a conflict between two or more states (both members of the international system), who use their respective national forces in the conflict. 

    • Mexican/American war of 1846-1847.   
  • Define intrastate conflict:
    Sustained political violence that takes place between armed groups representing the state, and one or more non-state groups. 

    • Most common form of conflict today.   
  • Define an extrastate conflict: Extrastate = Intrastate + Interstate --> DRC
    A conflict between a state (member of the international system) and a political entity which does not come in the form of a recognized state.
  • Why is data collection important? > Systematically collected conflict data provide lists of ongoing conflicts and also the material to analyse the data for trends and patterns, which in turn is helpful in framing policy.
  • Why is the unemployment rate important for a country?
    The position of young men is important in countries where men are the cost winners, If young men are mostly unemployed, they are likely to revolt. In the worst case, there will be a civil war. Or people will seek their employment in informal (illegal) markets.
  • Define armed conflict:
    A contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year.
  • Examples of non-state armed conflict. > El Salvador and Honduras. Define a non-state conflict:
    The use of armed force between two organized armed groups, neither of which is the government of a state, which results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year.
  • Define negative peace:
    Absence of war, but injustice and inequalities remain.
  • Absence of war, and injustice and inequalities solved. What type of peace is described here?
    Positive peace.
  • Describe what happens in a persistent conflict:
    Two sides are not interested in winning but rather in economic benefits. War as an enterprise.
  • The new conflicts are often described as internal conflicts or civil wars. Yet, although they are often very local, they cannot be classified as simply "internal", not only do they often involve neighbouring states, but they can be understood in the context of the process we call globalization - increasing global interconnectedness in economic, political and military domains.
  • Social contract. > State provides basic services and is "allowed" a monopoly on legitimate use of violence.
  • Define an old war:
    States against states with soldiers in uniform.
  • Erosion of the states power has two causes. What are those causes?
    1. Integration. > States are increasingly connected, and are more restricted in the use of force. 
    2. Fragmentation. > Structural Adjustment Programmes such as IMF, deregulation, liberalisation. 
  • Political goals. > National or ideological. What kind of war is described above?
    Old war.
  • Political goals. > Identity politics. What kind of war is described above?
    New war.
  • The point is that the lives of individual people are increasingly affected by distant events over which they may have little control.
  • Private armies. When Kings fought wars, they had to raise coalitions of armies from feudal barrons. What is the connected with the United Nations and the Kings?
    The UN has to raise coalitions of national forces when it mounts peacekeeping operations.
  • The end of the 18th century. The state has the authority to use physical coercion.
  • Standing armies helped change the notion of what constitutes as a legitimate war. A new set of rules which replaced the religious injunctions. Later, towards the end of the 19th century, these rules began to be codified under International Law.
  • What was the military thought of the Middle ages?
    Jus ad bello et jus in bellum.
  • In order to finance the old wars, taxation and borrowing had to be regulated.
  • Describe the "Key characteristic" of an old war:
    War was the province of the state and the state alone, and that wars were fought between states for control and territory.
  • Which century was marked by an emergence of total wars, in which mass production and mass propaganda were harnessed for mass distruction.
    20th century.
  • War is a rational instrument of state power. Which point of view is described here?
    Clauwitzen's point of view.
  • The control contrast with old conflicts is the erosion of the state- in particular, the erosion of the monopoly of legitimate organised violence.
  • What is the main goal of the new conflicts?
    Identity politics.
  • The main goal of the new wars are identity politics. What is ment with identity politics?
    The claim to power on the basis of identity, on a label, a nation, religion, language, clan.
  • There are two characteristics of identity politics that derive from the contemporary developments. What are those two characteristics?
    1. Transnational character. 

    2. Salience (opvallendheid) of the electroninc media. 
  • The economy of new wars is almost the exact opposite of the total wars of the 20th century.
  • All resources were mobilised for the war effort. Those wars were totalising and centralistic. What type of war is described above?
    Old war economy.
  • Decentralised. Participation is low and unemployment is very high. Dependence on outside resources is also extremely high. Production is largely destroyed. Apart from a few valuable and often illegal commodities, such as drugs - or in the case of Sierra Leona and Angola, diamonds. Taxes are virtually non-existent. What type of war economy is described above?
    New war economy.
  • Civil wars cannot simply be defined as internal conflicts anymore. > Globalization and interconnectecteness change the structure of a civil war.
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