Samenvatting Class notes - French A2

- French A2
- Noémie and Clémence
- 2014 - 2015
- France Langue
- French
261 Flashcards en notities
4 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - French A2

  • 1409522400 Grammar Definitions

  • A noun is:

    The name of a thing, a person, an animal, a place, feelings or things you experience.

    • Un passeport, Philippe, un chien, une ville, le bonheur, la chance.
  • In French all nouns are either masculine or feminine
  • How do you know if a noun is masculine or feminine in French?
    The article (e.g. le or la)
  • A singular noun means that there is only one thing.

    E.g. un chat

    A plural noun means that there is more than one thing.

    E.g. des magasins
  • The definitive article is the word 'the' and appears before the noun.
  • What are the definitive articles in French?
    Le, la, l' and les
  • The indefinite article is the word 'a' or 'an' and appears before the noun.
  • What are the indefinite articles in French?
    Un, une and des
  • A pronoun is used in place of a noun to prevent repetition of the noun.

    English pronouns are words like he, she, him, her and we (etc.).

    French pronouns are words like il, elle, lui and nous (etc.).
  • An adjective is a word that tells you about the noun.

    Adjetives in French agree with the noun and so can be masculine, feminine, singular or plural.

    • Paris is a beautiful and important city.
    • Paris est un belle ville importante.
  • A verb normally expresses action or sometimes the state of things.

    All sentences must contain at least one verb.

    • He buys some stamps.
    • Il achète des timbres.
    • It was fine.
    • Il faisait beau.
  • Regular verbs follow a set pattern.

    For example, the verb travailler (to work) follows the pattern of all regular -er verbs in French and the verb rendre (to return) follow the pattern of all regular -re verbs in French.
  • Irregular verbs do not follow a set pattern.

    For example, the verbs être (to be), avoir (to have), faire (to do) and aller (to go).
  • The infinitive verb is the form that would be found in a dictionary. It means to do something. E.g. to have, to see, etc.

    In French all regular infinitive verbs end in -er, -re or -ir.

    Sometimes the infinitive verb is used in a sentence with another verb.

    • In the Loire Valley you can visit lots of castles.
    • Dans le Val de Loire on peut visiter beaucoup de châteaux.
  • Reflexive verbs are verbs which are used with a reflexive pronoun.

    • I wash myself.
    • Je me lave.
    • We had a relaxing time.
    • Nous nous sommes reposés.

    The infinitive of a reflexive verb always contains the reflexive pronoun. E.g. se lever (to get up).
  • The tense of a verb tells you when something took place.

    Present tense: je joue au tennis (I am playing tennis)

    Perfect tense: J'ai joué au tennis (I played tennis)

    Imperfect tense: Je jouais au tennis (I used to play tennis)

    Conditional tense: Je jouerais au tennis (I would play tennis)

    Pluperfect tense: J'avais joué au tennis (I had played tennis)
  • An auxiliary verb is often used in many past tenses. The auxiliary or helping verb is a part of avoir (to have) or être (to be) in French.

    The auxiliary verb is followed by the past participle which is usually formed from the infinitive form of the verb and ends in -é, -i or -u. This gives the meaning of the verb.

    • We have ordered from the fixed-price menu.
    • Nous avons commandé le menu à prix fixe.
  • An adverb tells you more about the term, often explaining how, when or where something is happening.

    In English adverbs often end in -ly. In French they often end in -ment.

    • He spoke slowly.
    • Il a parlé lentement.
  • The subject of a verb is the person or thing performing the action being described. It is the noun or pronoun that governs the verb.

    • Jacqueline looks at the map.
    • Jacqueline regarde la carte.
  • The object of a verb is the person or thing which has the action performed on it.

    • He eats the sandwich.
    • Il mange un sandwich.

    The object can be a noun or pronoun.

    If it is a noun it usually comes after the verb.
    • He bought bananas.
    • Il a acheté des bananes.

    If it is a pronoun it usually goes between the subject and the verb.
    • We eat them.
    • Nous les mangeons.

    In these sentences 'bananas' and 'them' are direct objects.

    In French indirect objects normally have à, au or aux in front of them. In English this is normally 'to'.
    • I have already written to my friends, but I will speak to them this evening on the phone.
    • J'ai déjà écrit à mes amis, mais, je leur parlerai ce soir au téléphone.
  • Prepositions are words like to, at, from and in. They come before nouns or pronouns and often indicate position.
    • In front of her.
    • Devant elle.
  • A sentence is negative if is is describing that is not, never or no longer happening. No-one, nothing, nowhere and none are also negatives.
  • In French the letters a, e, i, o, u and y are vowels. Some words are shortened before a vowel.
    • Je -> J'
    • Ne -> N'
    • Le -> L'
    • De -> D'

    The letter h is often written but not sounded at the beginning of a word. When the h is silent in this way, the above words are also shortened.
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