Samenvatting Class notes - Human Anatomy and Physiology

Vak
- Human Anatomy and Physiology
- Bianca Brundel
- 2019 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
181 Flashcards en notities
2 Studenten
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Human Anatomy and Physiology

  • 1567288800 1. Physiology heart

  • How is the membrane potential determined?
    • Concentration differences
    • Permeability to ions
  • Is the concentration K+ always higher on the inside or on the outside of the membrane?
    On the inside
  • Is the concentration Na+ and Ca2+ always higher on the inside or on the outside of the membrane?
    On the outside
  • If you look at this graph, what happens at which points?
    0: Na+ channels open, this starts depolarisation (inside of the membrane gets positive)
    2: Ca2+ channels open, this starts repolarisation (inside of the membrane gets more positive)
    3:  K+ channels open (inside of the membrane gets negative)
    4: Na+ and Ca2+ come to the inside of the membrane from adjacent cells
  • By what is the heart rate determined?
    • Resting membrane potential of SA node cell
    • Velocity of depolarisation: slope of the prepotential
  • What are SA node cells?
    Pacemaker cells
  • What are ventricular cells?
    Cardiomyocytes
  • What determines the slope of the prepotential?
    Na+
  • What happens to the prepotential slope if you increase the heart rate? And how can the heart rate be increased?
    (Nor)adrenaline activates the sympathetic NS and causes more Na+/Ca2+ to move into the cell, giving a smaller prepotential slope.
  • What happens to the prepotential slope if you decrease the heart rate? And how can the heart rate be decreased?
    Acetylcholine activates the parasympathetic NS and caused the K+ channels to remain open, this results in a bigger prepotential slope.
  • What is the refractory period? Why do you need this?
    The period in which cells are inexcitable (Na+ channels are not reset). You need this in order for cells not to be overstimulated.
  • What is the difference in absolute and relative refractory period?
    During the absolute refractory period it is ABSOLUTELY impossible to have a new action potential. During the relative refractory period a new action potential is inhibited but not impossible.
  • What is the key to contraction?
    Ca2+ (--> CICR)
  • What initiates contraction?
    Ca2+ binding to myofilament
  • What is the purpose of ATP during contraction?
    ATP causes actin and myosin to release each other.
  • Describe a single heart beat at cellular level.
    • Electrical signal from neighbouring cell (CM, SA node, conduction system)
    • Action potential
      • Na+ influx
      • Ca+ influx
      • K+ influx
    • Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR)
    • Ca2+ binding to myofilaments
    • Power stroke --> cell shortening
    • Ca2+ release from myofilaments
    • Reuptake in SR --> relaxation
  • 1567375200 1. Physiology heart (2)

  • What is measured in an ECG?
    Electrical differences between regions in the heart
  • What is the P-top?
    Depolarization of the atria. At the end of the P-top all the cells in the atria are depolarized.
  • What is the QRS complex?
    Depolarization of the ventricles. At the end of the QRS complex all the cells in the ventricles are depolarized.
  • What is the T-top?
    Repolarization of the ventricles.
  • By what is the signal of the ECG determined?
    • Location of electrodes
    • Distance of electrodes to the heart
    • Size of the heart muscle
  • What is wrong if the PR-interval is too long?
    Then there is a problem with the sinus node.
  • What is wrong if the QT-interval is too long?
    Long QT syndrome. The QT interval depends on the heart rate.
  • What is Einthoven's triangle?
    Einthoven 1: left arm - right arm
    Einthoven 2: right arm - left leg
    Einthoven 3: left arm - left leg
  • What is the mechanism of an ECG?
    Depolarisation wave towards the positive electrode gives a positive signal on the ECG.
  • What is a myocardial infarction? What changes in the ECG?
    There is no blood to the heart via the coronary arteries so the heart doesn't get (enough) oxygen. The ST-segment changes, it does not go back to the baseline (when the heart cells are still alive).
  • What is the difference between supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats?
    Ectopic beats means that there is a disturbance in the cardiac rhythm. Supraventricular means that the problem originates in the atria. Ventricular means that the problem originates in the ventricles.
  • When is a pacemaker used?
    When the HR is too low or when there is no AV conduction to the ventricles.
  • What is an ICD and when is it used?
    An ICD is in implantable cardioverter defibrillator. It is used for people at risk for sudden cardiac death. It works the same as an AED but then this is implanted.
  • What is wrong with the ECG when you have ventricular extrasystole ectopic beats?
    The QRS is very wide.
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Samenvatting - Class notes - Human Anatomy and Physiology

  • 1473804000 Endocrine System

  • Endocrine system
    communication system of the body. Secretes hormones into the blood to coordinate body function
  • Hormones
    chemical message that is secreted into the blood and travels via the bloodstream. attach to certain protein receptors. very specific.
  • Glands
    epithelial cells that secrete hormones. Most hormones are secreted by glands, but some are secreted by individual cells.
  • What are the characteristics of hormones?
    1) hormones are secreted into the blood
    2) They act in very low concentrations
    3) They bind to specific target receptors on tissues
    4) break down over time. can take mins-days to break down
  • What are the 2 chemical classes of hormones?
    amino acid and steroid hormones
  • what are amino acid hormones?
    a majority of hormones are this type. Made up of amino acids (proteins). water soluble (EXCEPT thyroid hormone)
    3 types:
    1) amines: modified amino acids and are hydrophobic enough to pass through the plasma membrane
    2)peptides: short <50 amino acid chains
    3)proteins: long >50 amino acid chains    
    receptors for these hormones are on the outside on the plasma membrane
  • Where are the receptors located for amino acid-based hormones? steroid hormones?
    Amino acid based: outside of cell on the plasma membrane because they are water soluble except for the thyroid hormone
    steroid: inside the cell because they are non water soluble
  • What are steroid hormones?
    non water soluble. synthesized from cholesterol. 
    sex hormones.
    they enter into the cell and bind to a receptor and control what proteins the body makes
  • Explain the process of amino acid hormone binding on the cell
    the amino acid hormone binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane of the cell. The receptor is coupled with a G-protein. When the hormone binds to the receptor, it causes the receptor to change shape and release the G-protein. The G-protein then moves and attaches to another (receptor?) and then starts a chain reaction of 2nd messenger reactions.
  • What are steroid hormones derived from? What process?
    derived from cholesterol. Each step is catalyzed by an enzyme
  • What is unique about steroids and how they are transported?
    steroids are hydrophobic so their receptor proteins are intracellular. They are also made on demand because they cannot be stored in vesicles. Because they are hydrophobic, they cannot be stored in vesicles because they will slip out. Instead, they are transported via transport proteins, which are hydrophilic
  • Tropic hormones
    hormones that are controlled by other hormones
  • What are the different ways that hormones are secreted?
    1) physiological stimuli (insulin which maintain blood-sugar levels)
    2) secreted continuously
    3) tropic hormones- controlled by other hormones
    4) circadian rhythms or other time based rhythms (hunger, satiety, sleep)
  • What system influences the endocrine system?
    the central nervous system. influences the release of many hormones. Also, the endocrine pineal and pituitary glands are located at the base of the brain
  • How does negative feedback influence the endocrine system?
    the endocrine system will respond to a physiological stimuli/other hormone/nervous system/stretching of an organ and secrete hormones. Once the hormone levels are back to normal, then the message will stop being sent and hormones will stop being released.
  • Anterior pituitary gland
    made out of epithelial tissue. makes and secretes hormones
  • posterior pituitary gland
    made out of brain nervous tissue. stores and releases hypothalamic neurohormones, which are hormones received by the hypothalamus.
  • Neurohormones
    hormones secreted by neurons
  • some neurons secrete ______ that go into the bloodstream
    neurohormones
  • What structures are involved in the HP axis?
    the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
  • What does the HP axis do?
    The hypothalamus controls the functioning of the pituitary gland. pituitary gland controls the secretion of endocrine hormones elsewhere in the body.
  • What are some hormones that are released by the posterior pituitary?
    oxytocin and ADH
  • What structure makes oxytocin? releases it?
    hypothalamus makes oxytocin and it is released by the posterior pituitary
  • Oxytocin
    "the love hormone"
    released during childbirth
    orgasm
    "pair bonding" and trust
    artificial: pitocin     
    hormone of the Posterior pituitary
  • pitocin
    artificial oxytocin hormone given to induce labor
  • antidiruretic hormone (ADH)
    controls amount of water in the body. diruretics promote water loss from the body, primarily through urination. antidiruretics inhibit the functioning of diruretics by acting on the renal collecting ducts (kidneys). increases blood volume and pressure. alcohol inhibits ADH secretion, which is why alcohol results in dehydration. 
    hormone of the Posterior pituitary
  • what is the function of the anterior pituitary gland?
    to make it's own hormones. The hormones secreted here are tropic hormones and rely on other hormones.
  • What system carries tropic hormones to the ant. pit. from the hypothalamus?
    hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
  • the _____ portal system carries _____ hormones from the ____ to the _____ pituitary
    hypothalamic-hypophyseal. tropic hormones. hypothalamus. anterior.
  • What are the hormones of the anterior pit.?
    growth hormone
    prolactin
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    luteinizing hormone (LH)     
    thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Growth hormone
    stimulated by the growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) located in the hypothalamus. promotes growth of bones, muscles in children and the maintenance of muscle mass in adults
  • prolactin
    stimulates and maintains milk production. men make it too-unknown use
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    tropic hormone that regulates the activity of the adrenal cortex
    ACTH is controlled by the hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
    CRH--->hypothalamus--->Ant. Pit.----> ACTH---->blood----> adrenal cortex
  • what hormones does the adrenal cortex produce?
    steroid hormones
  • What types of steroid hormones does the adrenal cortex produce?
    1) mineralocorticoids
    2) glucocorticoids
    3) sex steroids
  • mineralocorticoids
    produced by the adrenal cortex
    regulates the amount of salt in the body (by kidneys). raises BP. maintains osmolarity in the body
  • glucocorticoids
    produced by the adrenal cortex.
    includes cortisol. responds to stress. increases blood sugar levels and BP. suppresses the immune system. controlled by ACTH
  • sex steriods
    produced by the adrenal cortex.
    make testosterone, estradiol and others
  • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    hormones of the ant. pit.
    controlled by the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    control the hormonal activity of the gonads (testes and ovaries)
    essential for development of the ova and sperm
  • gonads
    testes and ovaries
  • Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    controls the release of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    controlled by the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in the hypothalamus
    TSH influences the growth of the thyroid gland
    thyroid hormones contain iodine which controls energy utilization in the body
  • thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
    controls the release of the thyroid stimulating hormone
  • thyroid hormones
    T4 and T3. contain iodine. control energy utilization throughout the body. they act on the body to not run out of energy/waste energy
    deficiency: thyroid disease
  • What is the function of parathyroid glands?
    to monitor levels of calcium in the blood. if there are low levels of calcium, the parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released into the blood. PTH breaks down calcium from bones.
  • Where are the parathyroid glands located?
    on the thyroid gland
  • Calcitonin
    hormone released by the thyroid that opposes the effects of PTH. physiological significance is questionable
  • What does the adrenal medulla control?
    stress and the release of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) (for short term stress)
    long term stress releases different hormones
  • What hormone does the pineal gland secrete? what does that hormone do?
    the pineal gland secretes melatonin. Melatonin is involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm (high at night, low in day for humans). melatonin levels are regulated by light exposure (even blind people have these same levels though).
  • What hormones does the pancreas secrete? what do they control?
    insulin and glucagon. insulin is secreted when blood glucose levels are high. Insulin aids in the uptake of glucose out of the blood. Stores or uses the glucose. Glucagon is secreted when blood glucose levels are low. Glucagon helps to pull glucose out of storage (cells) to use to keep the levels up. We need stable levels of blood-glucose to make ATP.
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